jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

1722 hyponymy one sense is a hyponym of another sense

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17.2.2 Hyponymy One sense is a hyponym of another sense if the first sense is more specific, denoting hyponym a subclass of the other. For example, car is a hyponym of vehicle ; dog is a hyponym of animal , and mango is a hyponym of fruit . Conversely, we say that vehicle is a hypernym of car , and animal is a hypernym of dog . It is unfortunate that the two hypernym words (hypernym and hyponym) are very similar and hence easily confused; for this reason, the word superordinate is often used instead of hypernym . superordinate Superordinate vehicle fruit furniture mammal Hyponym car mango chair dog We can define hypernymy more formally by saying that the class denoted by the superordinate extensionally includes the class denoted by the hyponym. Thus, the class of animals includes as members all dogs, and the class of moving actions includes all walking actions. Hypernymy can also be defined in terms of entailment . Under this definition, a sense A is a hyponym of a sense B if everything that is A is also B , and hence being an A entails being a B , or 8 x A ( x ) ) B ( x ) . Hyponymy is usually a transitive relation; if A is a hyponym of B and B is a hyponym of C, then A is a hyponym of C. Another name for the hypernym/hyponym structure is the IS-A IS-A hierarchy, in which we say A IS-A B, or B subsumes A . Meronymy Another common relation is meronymy , the part-whole relation. A meronymy part-whole leg is part of a chair ; a wheel is part of a car . We say that wheel is a meronym of meronym car , and car is a holonym of wheel . holonym
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17.3 W ORD N ET : A D ATABASE OF L EXICAL R ELATIONS 305 17.3 WordNet: A Database of Lexical Relations The most commonly used resource for English sense relations is the WordNet lex- WordNet ical database (Fellbaum, 1998) . WordNet consists of three separate databases, one each for nouns and verbs and a third for adjectives and adverbs; closed class words are not included. Each database contains a set of lemmas, each one annotated with a set of senses. The WordNet 3.0 release has 117,798 nouns, 11,529 verbs, 22,479 ad- jectives, and 4,481 adverbs. The average noun has 1.23 senses, and the average verb has 2.16 senses. WordNet can be accessed on the Web or downloaded and accessed locally. Figure 17.1 shows the lemma entry for the noun and adjective bass . The noun “bass” has 8 senses in WordNet. 1. bass 1 - (the lowest part of the musical range) 2. bass 2 , bass part 1 - (the lowest part in polyphonic music) 3. bass 3 , basso 1 - (an adult male singer with the lowest voice) 4. sea bass 1 , bass 4 - (the lean flesh of a saltwater fish of the family Serranidae) 5. freshwater bass 1 , bass 5 - (any of various North American freshwater fish with lean flesh (especially of the genus Micropterus)) 6. bass 6 , bass voice 1 , basso 2 - (the lowest adult male singing voice) 7. bass 7 - (the member with the lowest range of a family of musical instruments) 8. bass 8 - (nontechnical name for any of numerous edible marine and freshwater spiny-finned fishes) The adjective “bass” has 1 sense in WordNet.
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