The change of a peripheral trait has a far weaker

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The change of a peripheral trait has a far weaker effect o The same quality which is central in one impression becomes peripheral in another - Asch (1946) study o Participants listened to the following between subject design Person A: intelligent, skillful, industrious, warm, determined, practical, cautious Person B: intelligent, skillful, industrious, cold, determined, practical, cautious A was rated as more generous, wise, happy and humorous A and B did not differ on reliability, importance, strength, honesty Some characters are more important for impression formation than others o Follow-up experiment used characters of less importance Person A: intelligent, skillful, industrious, polite, determined, practical, cautious Person B: intelligent, skillful, industrious, blunt, determined, practical, cautious Differences were weaker - Expectancies can influence behaviors o There are real and potentially harmful, social effects of our impression of others
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o Our expectations can influence our verbal and nonverbal behaviors in ways that may elicit the very characteristics we expected - Word, Zanna, and Copper (1974) study o What is the non-verbal behavior of whites when they interact with African-Americans? o Hypothesis: attitudes influence non-verbal behavior o Immediacy behaviors: orient ourselves closer, maintain eye contact, and lean forward while interacting o Experiment 1 White male participants: interviews with another while male or an African-American male Told they were to select a teammate for a subsequent, competitive task When interviewing an African-American Sat further away Shorter interviews More speech errors Fewer immediacy behaviors o Experiment 2 Confederate interviewer Interviewees: White male participants Immediacy behaviors: few or many o When treated with fewer immediacy behaviors, they were rated as Less competent Less composed Less liked Self-fulfilling prophecy (Merton, 1948) - A belief that leads to its own fulfillment (Word, Zanna & Cooper, 1974) - Teacher-expectations effect o High expectations seem to boost low achievers o Students are acutely sensitive to teachers’ facial expressions and body movements - Teachers’ expectation teacher’s behavior students’ behavior Behavioral confirmation - A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations - Occurs as people interact with partners holding mistaken beliefs Attribution theory (Heider, 1958) - The theory that describe how people explain the cause of behavior o Why do people behave the way that they do?
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o What are they likely to do in the future? - Dispositional attribution o Internal o Personality, ability, traits of the person involved - Situational attribution o External o Environmental constrains, other people’s actions, properties of the situations - Misattribution o Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source Inferring traits -
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