Represent and focus on either a conformity or

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represent and focus on either a conformity or resistance to pressures andconcerns in the industry (Franklin, 2008). The resistance perspective focuses onthe negative impact of the changes—that is, the declining circulation, the lossesin revenue, the growing trend of free content online, and the emergence of freenewspapers (e.g.,Metro) that are threatening newspapers’ survival. This viewmakes predictions about when the paper version of the newspaper will end onceand for all, contending that journalists do not want to change and will resist thechanges that are imposed by the industry as long as possible (Williams &Franklin, 2007).The other end of the spectrum focuses on the positive impact the recent changesinduce. This line of reasoning shows how the organizations have embraced thechanges in their environment. This perspective therefore supports the changesthat have been made in newspaper organizations. That newspaper organizationsare adapting to new technologies and platforms, and are allowing users tocontribute as this adds value to the product. These studies connect back to theprevious technological changes in the industry, such as the radio and television,claiming that the newspaper has a survival strategy that works since theorganizations have made it this far. Also, there is an optimistic vision of thefuture, that new technologies are opportunities that should be explored togetherby journalists, readers, and citizen journalists who produce UGC. Thus, thenewspaper becomes a hub and opens up for interactive discussions and a newkind of journalism (referred to as journalism 2.0: e.g., Spyridou et al., 2013).This new logic is different from the top-down control of gatekeeping and opensup the two-way communication that is participation (Franklin, 2008; Spyridou etal., 2013). The following sections explore what has been seen as the resistanceview, followed by the conforming view, focusing on organizational responses tochanges in the industry.3.4.1Organizational resistanceProfessionals in newspaper organizations have questioned the changes imposedby digitization, especially since the changes are increasing the workload andthere is a need to act as gatekeepers of the content. As mentioned previously, itis time consuming to keep control, and several scholars discuss how the high-speed production process affects journalistic quality (Deuze, 2002; Mitchelstein& Boczkowski, 2009; Ottosen & Krumsvik, 2012; Thurman & Myllylahti,2009). Even though much of this scholarly work emphasizes the internet as a
3. Newspaper Organizations: A Field in Flux75major factor in the decline of the newspaper, some scholars also criticize thisview and contend that the impact of the internet has been overstated.This line of criticism is generally supported by the impact of the increasingpresence for free newspapers and it suggests that these freebies are degeneratingthe situation for the traditional for-profit newspaper organization, where the freenewspapers “…cannibalize the content, circulation and advertising revenues of

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
Selznick, new institutionalism

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