Section 3
o
Fundamental elements
Experimental unit
•
Object upon collecting data
•
Ex: person, thing, transaction, or event
Population
•
Set of units that we are interested in studying
•
Ex: usually people, objects, transactions or events
Variable
•
Characteristics or properties of an individual experiment unit
•
Derived from the fact that any particular characteristic may vary
among the experimental units in a population
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Measurement is the process we use to assign numbers to variables
of individual population units
Sample
•
Subset of population
o
P
o
S
o
Statistics inference – estimate or prediction or generalization about a population
based on information contained in a sample
Use the information contained in the sample to learn about the larger
population
o
Measure of reliability – statement (usually quantified) about the degree of
uncertainty associated with a statistical inference
Reliability: how good the inference is
o
Four elements of descriptive statistical problems
The population or sample of interest
One or more variables (characteristics of the population or sample units)
that are to be investigated
Tables, graphs, or numerical summary tools
Identification of patterns in the data
o
Five elements of inferential statistical problems
The population of interest
One or more variables (characteristics of the population units) that are to
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 Fall '12
 JagbirSingh
 Statistics

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