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to the double bond followed by a rotation of the chain about the temporary single bond linkage in the fat molecule and loss of this hydrogen atom back to the catalyst permits the reformation of a double bond in the trans arrangement.Answer:True During the process of hydrogenation, hydrogen is added to the unsaturated fat to convert some of the "double bonds" into "single bonds" of saturated fat.Answer: TrueTrans fats do not occur naturally in food products.Answer:False (Trans fats are naturally occurring in products such as beef, cheese (brie), milk and butter but present research indicates they are not harmful.)Video 8Familiar Food-Meato“Carcass of Beef” – Rembrandt (1657)oObvious fat in meatIllustrate percentage of saturated fat by butter equivalentsMeat is equivalent to 5 pats of butter (15% of the pat of butter is water, thus the butter equivalence is around 4)-Fillet MignonoLess fat by several percentage pointsThat is why it’s so tenderThe way the fibre is will create a toughness-Cholesterol Build-UpoMix with bile acid in arteryProblem of consuming too much saturated fatArtery will build-up and raise cholesterol levelActivity 3: How Many Calories from Fat in a Serving of Red Meat?Assume a 14 oz (400g) steak contains 50% water, 30% protein, and 20% fat.
What percentage of the total calories comes from fat?Answer:1)Determine the number of grams from fat and protein.400 g x 20% = 80 g fat400 g x 30% = 120 g protein2)Determine the number of calories from fat and protein.80 g x 9 cal/g = 720 cal fat120 g x 4 cal/g = 480 cal protein3)Divide the number of calories from fat by the total number of calories.720 cal + 480 cal = 1200 cal720/1200 = 60% calories from fatVideo 9Cholesterol Containing Food (Egg)-Cholesterol & Saturated Fat in Food Cholesterol in BodyoWhat people think?Saturated fat does contribute to elevated cholesterol levelBut ~80% of cholesterol in body is produced by the boyLess of an issue for food content-Hamburgero“In America, we no longer fear God or the communists, but we fear fat” – David Kritchevsky (Wistar Institute)oKrispy Kreme burger with bacon and cheeseUltimate high calorie meal-Big Mac DietoPrison guard in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin has eaten at least two Big Macs daily during the past 29 yrs.14.5 cattle
6,250,000 sesame seeds-The issue over fat is not so clearoThree independent research groups from 1987-1992 worked on computer models on lifeexpectancy if saturated fat was reduced from the usual 30% to 10%1) Harvard Medical School – 19873 days to 3 months if saturated fat is reduced2) UCSF in 1988 showed 3-4 months increased lifetime3) A McGill study showed the sameoShows the result is not overwhelming to reduce saturated fat-Study (2010)oReplace saturated fats with unsaturated fatsShowed a reduction in heart diseaseSome reports do not show thisoDo not replace with carbohydratesThis will increase obesity-Another StudyoAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition