end of their independence for the Burmese. 40. East India Company-was incorporated in 1600; it mainly formed for trade with Eastand Southeast Asia and India. It began as a monopolistic trading body, establishing early trading stations in Surat, Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta. Its main trading goods were spices but it later on broadened to include cotton, silk, and other goods.41. General Douglas MacArthur-was an American general who commanded the Southwest Pacific in World War II (1939-1945), oversaw the successful Allied occupationof postwar Japan and led United Nations forces in the Korean War (1950-1953). MacArthur led United Nations forces during the start of the Korean War, but later clashedwith President Harry Truman over war policy and was removed from command.42. Yuan Dynasty-The ruling Mongol dynasty of China, founded by Khubilai Khan (r.1260- 94), who defeated the Song dynasty in 1279. Unlike him, his successors were rapacious but mediocre rulers who failed to build a stable administration or win the acceptance of their Chinese subjects. It is considered both as a division or continuation ofthe Mongol Empire and as an imperial dynasty of China.There were frequent succession struggles after 1328, and the dynasty was overthrown in 1368.
43. Empress Dowager Cixi-was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908. She was on the Manchu Yehenara clan. She suggested modernizing reforms in 1898 but sympathized with the Boxer Rebellion. She initiated piecemeal reform (1905) but never desired a truly constitutional monarchy. 44. Mutiny of 1857-An uprising against British rule in India. It began in January 1857 with sepoys (Indian soldiers under British command) in Calcutta who refused on religious grounds to use cartridges they believed to be greased with animal fat. Major sepoy resistance broke out at Meerut in May and the mutiny spread across Oudh and central and northern India. The Madras army and most Bombay units remained loyal. TheEast India Company closed down and Queen Victoria appointed a viceroy, promising equal opportunity to Indians wishing to hold office in the Indian civil service. 45. Muslim League-Association founded in 1906 by Indian Muslims anxious to have their national identity recognized and respected. Some sought their own nation state, and this ambition was fostered by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who became Pakistan's first governor-general. 46. Treaty of Kanagawa-Japan’s first treaty with a Western nation. Concluded by representatives of the United States and Japan at Kanagawa (now part of Yokohama), it marked the end of Japan’s period of seclusion (1639–1854). The treaty was signed as a result of pressure from U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who sailed into Tokyo Bay with a fleet of warships in July 1853 and demanded that the Japanese open their ports to U.S. ships for supplies. The first US-Japan Treaty of Friendship, signed by Matthew Perry at the Japanese port of the same name (now part of Yokohama).