14.Manifest Functions – Consequences that are intended and recognized by the participants in a system. 15.Latent Functions – consequences that are neither intended nor recognized by the participants in a system.16.Dependent Variable – the variable that is affected in an experimental setting.17.Independent Variable – the variable that causes an effect in an experiment setting.18.Recidivism – relapse into criminal behavior.19.Macrosociology– The study of large-scale and long-term social processes20.Microsociology– The detailed study of what indivisuals say, do, and think moment by moment as they go about their daily lives.21.Cultural Universals – patterned and recurrent aspects of life that appear in all known societies.22.Controlled Experiments– in which there is a control and change group23.Survey Research- 24.Ethnocentrism – The tendency to judge the behavior of other groups by the standards of one’s own culture.25.Qualitative Research- investigates the whyand howof decision making, as compared to what, where, and whenof quantitative research.26.Quantitative Research–research methods dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable. statistically reliable and generalized results27.Reference Group – control group28.Participant Observation- 29.Social Structure– The interweaving of people’s interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns.30.Subcultures – a group whose members participate in the main culture of a society while simultaneously sharing a number of unique values, norm, traditions, and lifestyles. 31.Subcultural Capital- 32.Cultural Relativity– A value-free or neutral approach that views the behavior of a people from the perspective of their own culture.33.Countercultures – A subculture whose norms and values are substantially at odds with those of the larger society. 34.Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis - 35.Norms– Social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situations.36.Laws – rules that are enforced by a special political organization composed of individuals who enjoy the right to use force.