clear and specific course of policy action How does a program define a problem

Clear and specific course of policy action how does a

This preview shows page 122 - 124 out of 354 pages.

clear and specific course of policy action How does a program define a problem Identify method to solve problem Paradigms Ideas as elite assumptions that constrain the cognitive range of useful solutions available to policy makers How does a policy and a program ‘mesh’ with the paradigm Normative level Policy normative aspect How does a policy meet aspirations and ideas of the general public How does a policy resonate with public sentiment Value acceptance Frames Ideas as symbols and concepts that help policy makers to legitimize policy solutions to the public How does a program resonate with public sentiment Public sentiment Ideas as public assumptions that constrain the normative range of legitimate solutions available to policy makers The cognitive and normative aspects of the problem and policy solutions are also prominent at the policy level, which is the focus of the agenda setting process. They are inherent in MS proposition that policy alternatives are more likely to be successful if they have three characteristics. They are: technical feasibility; value acceptance; and anticipation of future constraints. DI does not require these success factors for ideas per se, but provides an institutional context for the survival of an idea as a new institution, as summarised in Figure 4.4. Technical feasibility and value acceptance and a consideration of the cognitive and
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109 normative dimension of DI are related and overlap. They are, however, not congruent. The consideration of normative and cognitive aspects of ideas and discourse in the substantive dimension of DI stretches across the policy, program and philosophical level. With its attention on agenda setting, these considerations, or ‘ success factors in MS, are more focused on the policy and potentially the program levels, but not the philosophical level. In fact, MS discusses these elements on pre-policy level. Figure 4.4 illustrates how the elements of MS and DI are integrated based on Campbell’s typology of ideas. MS distinguishes the problems, policies and politics streams. This distinction is arguably for analytical purposes, as they are closely intertwined in reality (Ryan 1998; Schlager 2007). This analytical structure is useful because each stream plays a different role in the agenda setting process. DI does not offer this distinction, but assumes that the coordinative dimension of the policy process occurs predominantly in the policy arena, while the communicative dimension takes place in the political stream where politicians use discourse to obtain public approval. While MS touches on both coordination and communication, it does not consider discourse within these elements. MS touches on coordinative aspects as it suggest that PEs actively decide who to include or exclude in the agenda setting process. MS merely notes that PEs are manipulators of information to further their cause. How they manipulate information, is, however, not specified. This is where DI offers guidance. It focuses attention on the communicative dimension of discourse.
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  • Fall '13
  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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