BIOL
Bio Mid Term 1 Study Notes.docx

Towards the growing ve end o carries organelles and

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towards the growing, +ve, end o Carries organelles and vesicles travelling along microtubules o Requires hydrolysis of atp Also contains motor protein dyneins which walks in opposite direction of kinesin, towards the minus end o Transport vesicles and organelles, involved with flagella and cilia movement Function is intracellular transport, organelle movement, and cell motility Intermediate filaments: Rope like fibres Protein structure varies with tissue specificity Make up the nuclear lamina (interior portion of nuclear membrane) Found anywhere where mechanical strength is required Microfilament: composes of the protein actin Responsible for cell shape/structure, motility, and muscle contraction Contains the motor protein myosin which moves along actin towards its plus end, this slides the muscle filaments, leading to muscle contraction. Requires ATP o ****plants do not contain intermediate filaments**** Cell Junctions: area between separate cells o 3 Types: anchoring, tight, gap o Anchroing Junctions: Desmosomes: associated with intermediate filaments Adherens Junctions: Associated with microfilament portion of cytoskeleton Found in heart muscles or skin o Tight Junctions: Fusion of plasma membrane proteins Hold portions of the two plasma membranes very tight together Prevents leaking between cells Found in stomach, intestine, bladder o Gap Junctions: Channels, composed of protein, through the plasma membrane
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Permit passage of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells of the same type Found in most tissue types but most imnprotant where tissue must operate as a single unit ie. Heart or uterine tissue 1. Hypothesis is an educated guess usually done in a laboratory environment before an experiment is done. Once an experiment is done, the hypothesis can easily be declared right or wrong. Theories, however, are not so simple. Theories are a person’s understanding of a particular concept backed with reasonable evidence. These may be right or wrong but generally take time before given a declaration. 2. Cell Theory: all living things are composed of cells, cells only come from other cells, cells are the simplest unit of life. Evolution: over time organisms adapt to their environment through a process of natural selection. 3. All cells contain some form of genetic material, either DNA or RNA. All cells contain basic building blocks of life (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleotides). All cells require and use energy. All cells contain a plasma membrane. a. Protein Stuctures: primary (single chain of amino acids), secondary (amino acid chain formed in an alpha helix or beta sheeth), tertiary (amino acid chains formed in 3D structure due to helix and sheeths being attracted to one another, forming a peptide chain), quaternary (multiple peptide chains) 4. Modes of nutrition: a. Chemotrophs: gain energy from organic and inorganic molecules b. Autotroph: create own energy c. Heterotroph: gain energy from other organisms d.
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