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determine power and sample size for comparisons of two groups in cross-sectional designs (Abramson, 2011).” (p. 27). The researchers used a snowball method to recruit 43 respondents who completed a paper questionnaire and determined the number of participants needed and the clarity of questions. The WINPEPI COMPARE2 computer program calculated a required sample size of 297 respondents. The researchers then used simple random sampling of the general population with 312 respondents participating in the study (Bortz et al., 2014).A purposive sampling design was utilized for this study. This type of sampling design is defined as “Sampling of individuals who meet certain inclusion criteria” (Houser, 2018). The study wanted to specifically study the health education needs of incarcerated women.Describe the instrument, tool, or survey used in each article.The study used the WINPEPI COMPARE2 program to determine sample size. The researchers used a paper questionnaire and an online survey to collect data (Bortz et al., 2014).“Data were analyzed using a constant comparison approach to identify emerging patterns using a concept map approach.” (p. 230).Summarize the discussion about the validity and reliability of the instruments, tools, or surveys used in each article“One limitation is that the sample population included only Jews, which excluded the sizable Arab minority population in Israel due to the likelihood that a different culture and religion would affect the study results. The second limitation is that the study was conducted using anonline survey, which has a number of built-in limitations, including sampling and access issues.” (p.31). The article also discusses how 70% of participants had signed an organ donor card and only 14% of the Israeli population has signed an organ donor card. This could indicate that