Broccoli has compound glucoraphanin - when cook or chew, glucoraphin breaks down into sulphoraphane -> induces formation of phase 2 enzymes (tie up toxins/waste products and excreting them out of the body) o Broccosprouts have about 50 times more sulphoraphane than adult broccoli Cabbage has indole-3-carbinol also anti-carcinogen Lesson 2: Diet and the Heart I Video 1 Calorie restriction extends longetivity Cholesterol story may have been over emphasized Ancel Keys: American physiologist - foundation of lipid hypothesis for heart disease, that cholesterol linked to heart disease (took it off from the Russian scientist) - Also work by Gofman that cholesterol carried in lipoprotein Video 2 Ancel keys: calories consumed fat α heart disease (correlation ≠ causation) o Looked at island of Crete = ate lots of fat (50%; but no heart disease) because oil from veggies not as bad o Criticism: some populations didn't fit with this (eg Australian tribe: low cholesterol, high heart disease; turns out because LDL small particle) John Yudkin looked at Keys' data; so he looked at sugar intake (also paralleled with heart disease; Keys was aware of sugar connection, but thought it was because high sugar means high fat diet) Video 3 Risk factors of heart disease: low birth weight, and if born male, hypertension, inactivity, obesity, smoking, diabetes, stress (difficult to define), microbes (some can affect the heart, and some can enter the blood from the mouth) o Homocysteine, formed from methionine; its break down by B vitamins - injection of homocysteine triggered heart disease - keep homocysteine levels below 11. Now, a lot of research on this How reduce homocysteine? Get B vitamins (fruits and veggies or homocysteine shiled pills) HOPE (Heart Outcomes Project Evaluation) found no benefit in heart attacks to reduce homocysteine o High triglycerides also linked to heart disease Video 4 Cholesterol Essential - liver produces 800 mg / day, so we don't need more. But if we intake, liver just makes less Only found in foods of animal origins
High levels in the blood = high risk for heart disease Plaque = cholesterol Must do epidemiological studies Other condition: familial hypercholesterolemia to be strongly associated to heart disease (genetic - make too much cholesterol, so you can see it aggregate externally via deposits) Farmingham study findings picture on right; also found no significant association b/w dietary fat and heart disease o Framing of study was confusing o Today, you can have a scientific study supporting anything o More than half of all heart attack victims don't have high cholesterol Video 5 Anatomy of heart - Coronary heart looks like heart Heart attack = lack of oxygen to heart cells Calcium, fatty material, cholesterol = plaque Korean war deaths - young men evaluated = 77% had signs of atherosclerosis --> Cholesterol details o Cholesterol transported by lipoprotein o Lipoprotein defined by their densities - different activities o
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- Spring '11