Major anxiety disorders most frequently occurring

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Major Anxiety Disorders Most frequently occurring psychiatric problems in the general population Overall, they run strongly in families, and are co-morbid with depression and stress disorders  (50-70% of people with lifetime depression also have lifetime anxiety disorders) – suggesting a  common “distress” inheritance Carry increased risk of alcoholism / drug abuse and “self-medication” DSM-IV-TR Classification of Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic disorder, with and without Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) Specific Phobias Obsessive-compulsive disorder Stress disorders Acute Post-traumatic
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Some Common Physical Disorders That Can Mask As “Anxiety  Disorders” Hyperthyroidism   Pheochromocytomas (adrenal tumors that over-secrete adrenalin)   Inner ear disease   Angina pectoris Hypoglycemia Mitral valve prolapse Cardiac arrhythmias   Drug effects (caffeinism, nicotine addiction,  nasal decongestants,  asthma inhalers or  other stimulants) General Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  (GAD) Debilitating worry, fretfulness Worry is hard to control Varied anxiety symptoms, incl. restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or mind  going blank, irritability, muscle tension, insomnia Often arises with, or just before or after, major depression. Facts About Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1-year prevalence 3-4% Usually emerges during adolescence Females > Males:  2:1 ratio 75% of GAD sufferers have another mental disorder, usually major depression Affects 10-20% of the elderly, who are beset with frailty, medical illness, and losses –  which lead to vulnerability and fear 36 % of GAD sufferers self-medicate w/ ETOH and other drugs (e.g., marijuana) 
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(J.Nerv.Ment.Dis., 2006) Substance use often develops with GAD, and so causality may be bi-directional Symptomatic Treatments for Anxiety Habit control (e.g.,coffee, cigarettes, stimulant medications) “Anxiolytic” (anti-anxiety) medications For acute use:  Benzodiazepines, e.g.,  Xanax Ativan,   Klonopin Valium Rarely: Beta-blockers, e.g.,  Tenormin Inderal For chronic use: Most often: SSRI’s ( Prozac Lexapro , etc.) or atypical antidepressants (e.g.,  Cymbalta Effexor ) Occasionally:  Atypical anxiolytics, e.g.,  Buspar ( buspirone) Antipsychotics like  Abilify,   Seroquel Risperdal  and  Zyprexa Psychotherapy supportive, cathartic  relaxation and meditation techniques Stress management training Biofeedback Exercise Support groups Panic Disorder Occurrence of panic attacks without warning.
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