e.No progress was achieved in Congress to advance federal civil rights legislation to protect African Americans seeking employment and fair housing after World War I. Southern Congressional Democrats remained unalterably opposed to federal civil rights legislation, and Wilsonian idealism did not include pushing for federal civil rights protection for African-Americans.Question 8a.The Treasury Department sponsored huge parades, invoked slogans “like Halt the Hun,” and published newspaper and magazine advertisements to persuade Americans to purchase loan subscriptions and war bonds to help finance the war. b.The Fuel Administration urged Americans to save fuel during the war years with heatless Mondays, lightless nights, and gasless Sundays.c.Correct answer. The United States government refused to institute wage and price controls to restrain wartime inflation. The American ideological commitment to laissez-faire and maintaining a weak central government overcame the alternative option of imposing economic stability and order on the American wartime economy through government wage and price controls. d.The United States Navy seized enemy merchant vessels trapped in America’s harbors in order to obtain supplies for the war effort. e.The United States government assumed management and operation of the nation’s railroads in late 1917 to relieve enormous rail traffic congestion that was interfering with the smooth operation of the wartime economy. Question 9a.Congress passed a new conscription law in May 1917, requiring the draft registration of all males between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, resulting in the development of a 4 million man U.S. Army within a few months. b.For the first time in American history, women were admitted to and served with distinction in the armed forces of the United States. Approximately 11,000 women served in the navy, 269 women served in the marines, and many women served as battlefront nurses in the U.S. Army. c.Correct answer. Approximately 4,000 conscientious objectors in the United States were excused from mandatory military service during World War I. d.African-Americans served in strictly segregated units under mainly white officers. In addition, military officers were reluctant to train black men for combat, and the majority of African-American soldiers were assigned to construction battalions or assigned to unloading ships. e.Originally, all military recruits were supposed to obtain six months of training in the United States and two additional months abroad. However, the human slaughter of over two years of trench warfare in Europe produced a crippling Allied manpower shortage that required the United States armed forces to institute an abbreviated military training period for recruits, which left many doughboys incapable of handling a rifle, much less a trench gun.
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Question 10a.The Germans’ introduction of poison gas exacerbated the deadly horror of trench warfare in World War I; however, it did not represent a decisive tactical advantage that allowed the Germans to win any European battle in 1917 or early 1918.
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