Feedback s relative humidity relative humidity stays

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Unformatted text preview: feedback s Relative humidity Relative humidity stays roughly stays roughly constant constant as climate warms as climate warms s Since RH = Since RH = w/w w/w s (T (T ) and ) and w s (T (T ) increases exponentially ) increases exponentially with T, then with T, then humidity increases rapidly with T humidity increases rapidly with T s So the feedback goes like this: So the feedback goes like this: Increased CO Increased CO 2 —› raises emission level › raises emission level —› raises T › raises T —› raises humidity › raises humidity —› raises emission level even further › raises emission level even further —› raises T even further › raises T even further 4 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Cloud feedback Cloud feedback z S (1– α )/4 σ T e 4 LOW CLOUD: higher albedo => cooling HIGH CLOUD: higher albedo => cooling higher emission level => warming net effect = ? Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Climate change in the past Introduction to Meteorology & Climate The Greenland ice sheet Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice sheets as climate archives Introduction to Meteorology & Climate GISP2 drill site Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice core 5 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice core warehouse Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice core close Ice core close-up showing up showing annual layers annual layers Layer-by-layer analysis of isotopic composition yields temperature history Introduction to Meteorology & Climate A similar trick, in the ocean A similar trick, in the ocean Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ocean sediment core 6 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Foraminifera Introduction to Meteorology & Climate The Ice Ages The Super Greenhouse Snowball Earth Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Earth is thought to have fallen into the ice-covered state around 750 million years ago. At that time, insolation was about 6% lower than today. Snowball Earth Introduction to Meteorology & Climate What it might have looked like: Ice punctured by volcanos (Vatnajokull, Iceland) Photosynthetic life may have survived in areas with frequent cracks in the ice Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice Ages Introduction to Meteorology & Climate 7 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate The Milankovitch hypothesis Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Introduction to Meteorology & Climate The...
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