Before his victories in kentucky and tennessee

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Chapter 8 / Exercise 5
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Before his victories in Kentucky andTennessee, Ulysses S. Grant had been amediocre West Point cadet, a failed busi-nessperson, and an undistinguishedarmy officer. More than any other Unioncommander, however, Grant changedthe strategy—and the outcome—of theCivil War. Grant’s restless urge for offen-sive fighting and his insistence on “unconditional surrender” atFort Donelson convinced Lincoln to place the general in commandof all the Union troops in 1864. Lincoln’s confidence was not mis-placed. Despite mounting casualties and accusations that he was a“butcher,” Grant pushed relentlessly until he finally accepted Lee’ssurrender at Appomattox, Virginia.The Union’s enthusiasm for its victorious general made Grant atwo-term president after the war, although scandals in his admin-istration marred his reputation. The Civil War had been the highpoint of Grant’s life, the challenge that brought out his best quali-ties. More than any monument or memorial—including Grant’sTomb, in New York City—Lincoln’s defense of his embattled gen-eral during the war sums up Grant’s character and achievement: “I can’t spare this man; he fights.”262CHAPTER 7The Civil War and Reconstruction
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Chapter 8 / Exercise 5
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Writing About HistoryCHAPTER 7The Civil War and Reconstruction263Checking for Understanding 1. Define: foraging, siege, torpedo,mandate. 2. Identify: Pickett’s Charge, GettysburgAddress, William Tecumseh Sherman,Thirteenth Amendment, AppomattoxCourthouse. 3. Describehow General Grant conductedthe Confederate surrender. 4.Geography and HistoryWhy was capturing Vicksburg important for theUnion? 5. AnalyzingHow might the outcome ofthe war have been different if theConfederates had won at Gettysburg? 6. Organizing Complete a graphic organ- izer by listing the purpose for the Union march on Atlanta and the effect of the city’s capture on both sides. Analyzing Visuals 7.Examining GraphsExamine thegraphs of war deaths on page 260.What would account for the thousandsof non-battle deaths listed in one of thegraphs? 8. Descriptive Writing Take on the role of a Confederate or Union soldier at the Battle of Gettysburg. Write a journal entry describing the battle and your feelings about its result. Constitution. To get the amendment through Congress, Republicans appealed to Democrats who were against slavery to help them. On January 31, 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, banning slavery in the United States, was narrowly passed by the House of Representatives and was sent to the states for ratification. Surrender Meanwhile, back in the trenches near Petersburg, Lee knew that time was running out. On April 1, 1865, Union troops led by Philip Sheridan cut the last rail line into Petersburg at the Battle of Five Forks. The following night, Lee’s troops withdrew from their positions near the city and raced west.

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