Which neuropeptide promotes wakefulness a Prostaglandin D 2 c Hypocretins b L

Which neuropeptide promotes wakefulness a

  • Hunter College, CUNY
  • NURS 717
  • Test Prep
  • ArtieB223
  • 13
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30. Which neuropeptide promotes wakefulness? a. Prostaglandin D2c. Hypocretinsb. L-tryptophand. Growth factorsANS: C The hypothalamus, as a major sleep center, secretes hypocretins (orexins), which are neuropeptides that promote wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, as well as appetite, energy consumption, and pleasure or reward. The remaining options do not fulfill this objective. PTS: 1 REF: Page 503
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31. Which term is also used to refer to paradoxic sleep? REM sleep is also known as paradoxic sleep because the electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern is similar to the normal awake pattern. None of the other terms are used to identify paradoxic sleep. PTS: 1 REF: Page 503 32. The sudden apparent arousal in which a child expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while still in a sleep state characterizes which sleep disorder? Three types of parasomnias include arousal disorders such as confusional arousals, sleepwalking (somnambulism), and night terrors (dream anxiety attacks). The remaining options do not involve a sense or expression of fear or any other strong emotion. PTS: 1 REF: Page 505 33. Coronary artery disease is most affected by which component of sleep? Coronary artery disease is most affected during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During this component of sleep, dreams may provoke nocturnal angina, increased heart rate, and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. The other options are not associated with coronary artery disease. PTS: 1 REF: Page 506 34. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs in cycles approximately every: a. 45 minutesc. 120 minutesb. 90 minutesd. 150 minutesANS: B REM sleep accounts for 20% to 25% of sleep time and is characterized by desynchronized, low-voltage, fast activity that occurs for 5 to 60 minutes approximately every 90 minutes, beginning after 1 to 2 hours of non-REM sleep. PTS: 1 REF: Page 503 35. Loud snoring, a decrease in oxygen saturation, fragmented sleep, chronic daytime sleepiness, and fatigue are clinical manifestations of which sleep disorder?
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Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repetitive increases in resistance to airflow within the upper airway with loud snoring, gasping, intervals of apnea lasting from 10 to 30 seconds, fragmented sleep, and chronic daytime sleepiness and fatigue, as well as a decrease in oxygen saturation. The remaining options do not exhibit the signs and symptoms listed in the stem. PTS: 1 REF: Page 504
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