Necessarily every person develops the knowledge to

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An Invitation to Health
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 02
An Invitation to Health
Hales
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necessarily every person develops the knowledge to personally adapt, just by having a lot of experience in another culture. A person that understands their own culture very well has a greater understanding of how he behaves in another culture and can use this knowledge to observe behaviours of others. If the person is open minded they are also more open to other cultures and more open to learn them. A robust person that offers a lot of courage can easier deal with exposed stress situations and cross-cultural interactions.
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An Invitation to Health
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 02
An Invitation to Health
Hales
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15 2.2 Edward Hall and the study of communication in management The US anthropologist Edwart T. Hall was one of the first who studied the role of communication in management. He looked at the time, language and space, which differs from culture to culture, and developed three basic concepts (Browaeys & Price, 2008): 1) Monochromic versus polychromic time perception 2) Low context versus high context communication 3) The definition of personal space Monochromic versus polychromic time perception In cultures with monochromic time perception, people experience time in a linear way, like to do one thing at a time and use schedules to keep up their activities. For this reason, relationships with others are not a priority or can often not be recognized because of the priority to follow the schedule that leaves no space for deviance. Furthermore, the focus is on information, not other people, and on short-time orientation. Monochromic people show difficulties with adapting to new situations, changes in processes, but often develop a vision or a mission to go after. The company´s values and reputation are very important. Polychromic time perception includes the ability to deal with several tasks at the same time and a high involvement with other people. Schedules are made but they can be changed at any time and focus is on long term and private relationships. People are more flexible and can improvise if necessary (Browaeys & Price, 2008). Long range goals, benefits and objectives are seen as desirable. Low context versus high context communication Different ways of communication exist in different cultures. In a low context way of communication, most of the things that are intentioned are said, and very little is read between the lines. The language is information-based and very little information needs to be settled in the listener him/herself to reach a good way of understanding the other. People like to make clear contracts for decided plans as a way of insurance and are task driven. In a high context culture the message is often hidden and needs to be read between the lines. Situations of information exchange hide a lot of information that needs to be decoded to understand. Therefore the listener needs to have a basic understanding of the
16 meaning of things and behaviours in his culture. Job descriptions are not implicit and need to be understood according to the context. Plans are less detailed. A lot of information is expected and people that use low context communication will often not understand properly what is expected of them.

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