Herder reflections on the philosophy on the history

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Herder, “Reflections on the Philosophy on the History of Mankind” 1784- He believed that nations had phases of youth, maturity and decline, using an analogy of nations being like organic beings to do so. He says that all of mankind is the same and that what differentiates each nation from the other is that each nation had different ‘human reasons’ and as time passes on, the nations that exist today will diverge and develop to form their own ‘human reasons’. ; much more mellow (each nation is bound by own history, each is bound by blood and soil but each nation is equal) when compared to Von Treitscke Mazzini, “Essays on the duties of man” 1840- Mazzini was Italian and nationalistic. He talks about other documents that preach civil liberties of man such as the French ‘Declaration of Rights of man and citizen’ and makes the claim that the plight of man has not improved. He preaches that the duties of man is toward his country but first and foremost is towards humanity and mankind as he is a man first before he is from a country. Documents on German Unification, 1848-1871 (meh) Renan, “What is a Nation?” 1884- In this text, Renan outlines the 3 arguments that make a group of people a nation. 1) argument- All people are equal and free. 2) Inhabitants of a nation must share a common past and derived a strong bond from this past. 3) These people with a common past have now agreed to live in harmony and be governed by a mutual consent in the future.
John Stuart Mill, “Of Nationality, as Connected with Representative Government” (Date) Von Treitscke “Politics”- He was a proponent of authoritarian power politics and believed in the unity of Germany through Prussian might. He believed that the state should be that center of the lives of its citizens and that a nation should be governed by an authoritarian government without the interference of a Parliament. He thought that Germany was a the true heir to the Holy Roman Empire and urged for a rise in its imperial status. For the people in the state, the aim of the state would be fiscal stimulus and for between larger countries, war was necessary to protect its people.; more aggressive than Herder’s nationalism Sigmund Freud, “Civilization and Its Discontents” 1930 Spencer, “Progress: Its Law and Cause” 1857- Social darwinism- A social theory that applies the law of survival of the fittest to society. Spencer advocates that competing individuals improve the wellbeing of all of society. Nietzsche, “Will to Power” 1880’s Darwin, “Origin of Species” 1859 Darwin, “Descent of Man” 1871 Ferry, “Speech before the French National Assembly” 1883 Pearson, “National Life From the Standpoint of Science” 1900 Kipling “The While Man’s Burden” 1899 George Orwell, “Shooting an Elephant” 1931-1936 The New Physics Smith, “The Wealth of Nations?” 1776 - Invisible hand, orders of society, capitalism, One of the most important documents of the 18th century because it created the foundations of a modern economy. Smith emphasized economic liberalism which was

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