This standard was developed to describe protocols for Second Generation 2G

This standard was developed to describe protocols for

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System for Mobile Communications (GSM) in early 2000. This standard was developed to describe protocols for Second Generation (2G) digital mobile networks. ISSN (Online) : 2454 -7190 ISSN (Print) 0973-8975
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J.Mech.Cont.& Math. Sci.,Vol.-13, No.-4, September-October (2018) Pages 198-207 199 2G networks are digital circuit switched system optimized for full duplex voice transmission. Ufone joined the cellular market in 2001. Thereafter, Government of Pakistan started deregulation of telecom industry in 2003-2004, due to this deregulation telecom industry revolutionized and market opened for new entrants. Two international companies Telenor (Norway) and Warid (Abu Dhabi) set up operations in the country in 2005. Table 1: Showing comparison of frequency spectrum used and number of users of mobile operators [XVI]. Rank Operator Technology Subscribers (in millions) 1 Mobilink GSM-900/1800 MHz (GPRS, EDGE) 41.2 (December 2016) 2100 MHz UMTS, WiMAX 2 Telenor GSM-900/1800 MHz (GPRS, EDGE) 39.4 (December 2016) 2100 MHz UMTS, HSPA, HSPA+, 1800 MHz LTE 3 Zong GSM-900/1800 MHz (GPRS, EDGE) 27.5 (December 2016) 2100 MHz UMTS, HSPA, DC-HSPA+ 1800 MHz LTE 4 Ufone GSM-900/1800 MHz (GPRS, EDGE) 18.5 (December 2016) 2100 MHz UMTS, HSPA, HSPA+ 5 Warid GSM-900/1800 MHz (GPRS, EDGE) 10.2 (December 2016) 1800 MHz LTE On 14 April 2014, Pakistan's first spectrum auction was held for 3G and 4G mobile telecom spectrum by Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). Four companies submitted their bids to PTA, includes Zong, Ufone, Telenor and Mobilink, while Warid Telecom did not participated in the bidding. The Government of Pakistan earned $903 million from 3G auction and $210 million from 4G auction with total revenue of $1.1 billion from both auctions. Zong won the first ever 4G license in Pakistan in 1800 MHz band. Another license for 4G could not be auctioned since no mobile operator participated in this auction. In 3G category, Zong along with Mobilink won 2x10 MHz license from 2100 MHz band. Ufone and Telenor won 2x5 MHz license for 3G from the same band [I]. In June 2016 Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) again offered auction 4G license in 850MHz spectrum. In this auction Telenor was the only bidder, hence it was awarded 10MHz block at a price of $395 million [II]. PTA gave a time frame to mobile operators for rollout of 3G services within six months from auction. First phase contained cities of Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad,
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J.Mech.Cont.& Math. Sci.,Vol.-13, No.-4, September-October (2018) Pages 198-207 200 Peshawar and Quetta. Subsequently in second phase covering eighteen months eighty more cities of all the four provinces will be covered. In third phase, ninety percent cities of all tehsils in Pakistan will be covered by 3G services. Zong launched 3G and 4G services almost simultaneously in big cities of Pakistan and now it covers almost all the big and medium scale cities [III]. Mobilink, Telenor and Ufone started 3G services starting from big cities and then subsequently to smaller cities. Warid did not participated in 3G and 4G bidding due to its weak financial and market position, but it started operation of LTE services in 2016, due to the fact that its GSM services license allocated in 2004 was from 1800 MHz frequency band which supported LTE services. Warid allocated 3.5 MHz bandwidth in this band to launch LTE services and had its license amended from PTA and launched the services [IV].
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