Dietary Supplements Fall 2012

Normal growth reproduction skeletaltooth development

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normal growth,  reproduction,  skeletal/tooth  development Fat malabsorption  may decrease  vitamin A  absorption
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Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D** Vitamin D Symptoms of  Deficiency Symptoms of  Toxicity Comments Calciferol Cholecalciferol  (D3) Ergocalciferol (D2) Rickets Osteomalacia Hypercalcemia Hypercalciuria Kidney stones Anorexia Necessary for  proper formation  of bone Fat malabsorption  may decrease  vitamin D  absorption
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Spending little time in the sun or those who  regularly cover up when outdoors Living in nursing homes or other institutions or  who are homebound Certain medical conditions such as Celiac disease  and inflammatory bowel disease Medicines that affect vitamin D levels (ex: certain  anti-seizure medicines) Very dark skin Obese or very overweight people Older adults with certain risk factors Vitamin D Deficiency 
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Food sources:  Fatty fish Fortified dairy products DV is based on 400 IU/day Vitamin D Deficiency
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Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin E Vitamin E Symptoms of  Deficiency Symptoms of  Toxicity Comments Tocopherols Alpha- tocopherol Tocotrienol Peripheral  neuropathy Muscle weakness Hemolytic anemia Rare Vitamin E is an antioxidant Avoid large vitamin E   doses in patients using  anticoagulants Fat malabsorption may  decrease vitamin E  absorption
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Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin K Vitamin K Symptoms of  Deficiency Symptoms of  Toxicity Comments Phytonadione  (K1) Menaquinone  (K2) Menadione (K3) Defective blood  coagulation Hemorrhage Rare Promotes synthesis of  clotting factors (II, VII, IX,  X) Activates clotting factors  & anticoagulation  proteins (C, S) Microbiologic gut flora  manufactures most of  vitamin K needed
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Food sources: “Green leafy vegatables” Spinach Greens (collard, mustard, turnip) Broccoli Asparagus Brussel sprouts Cabbage Salads (especially “greener” types) Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin K
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Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of  Deficiency Comments Thiamine  (B1) Polyneuropathy Beriberi Necessary for myocardial  function, nerve cell function, and  carbohydrate metabolism Riboflavin  (B2) Blurred vision Itching, watery eyes Bloodshot eyes May cause a yellow-orange  fluorescence of urine
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Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of  Deficiency Comments Niacin (B3) (nicotinic acid) Niacinamide (nicotinamide) Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia Lipid lowering Flushing (vasodilating effects) Hepatotoxicity N/V *Niacinamide does NOT have lipid- lowering or vasodilating effects Pyridoxine (B6) Oral lesions Peripheral  neuropathy High doses inhibit prolactin
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Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of  Deficiency Comments Folic acid (B9)  (folate) Folic acid deficiency  anemia Mouth sores Diarrhea Deficiency in pregnant women is 
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