Dietary Supplements Fall 2012

Vitaminosis of vitamin a headache fatigue n/v

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Unformatted text preview: vitaminosis of Vitamin A: Headache, fatigue, N/V, diplopia Necessary for normal growth, reproduction, skeletal/tooth development Fat malabsorption may decrease vitamin A absorption Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D** Vitamin D Symptoms of Deficiency Symptoms of Toxicity Comments Calciferol Cholecalciferol (D3) Ergocalciferol (D2) Rickets Osteomalacia Hypercalcemia Hypercalciuria Kidney stones Anorexia Necessary for proper formation of bone Fat malabsorption may decrease vitamin D absorption Spending little time in the sun or those who regularly cover up when outdoors Living in nursing homes or other institutions or who are homebound Certain medical conditions such as Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease Medicines that affect vitamin D levels (ex: certain anti-seizure medicines) Very dark skin Obese or very overweight people Older adults with certain risk factors Vitamin D Deficiency Food sources: ◦ Fatty fish ◦ Fortified dairy products ◦ DV is based on 400 IU/day Vitamin D Deficiency Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin E Vitamin E Symptoms of Deficiency Symptoms of Toxicity Comments Tocopherols Alpha- tocopherol Tocotrienol Peripheral neuropathy Muscle weakness Hemolytic anemia Rare Vitamin E is an antioxidant Avoid large vitamin E doses in patients using anticoagulants Fat malabsorption may decrease vitamin E absorption Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin K Vitamin K Symptoms of Deficiency Symptoms of Toxicity Comments Phytonadione (K1) Menaquinone (K2) Menadione (K3) Defective blood coagulation Hemorrhage Rare Promotes synthesis of clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X) Activates clotting factors & anticoagulation proteins (C, S) Microbiologic gut flora manufactures most of vitamin K needed Food sources: ◦ “Green leafy vegatables” Spinach Greens (collard, mustard, turnip) Broccoli Asparagus Brussel sprouts Cabbage Salads (especially “greener” types) Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin K Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of Deficiency Comments Thiamine (B1) Polyneuropathy Beriberi Necessary for myocardial function, nerve cell function, and carbohydrate metabolism Riboflavin (B2) Blurred vision Itching, watery eyes Bloodshot eyes May cause a yellow-orange fluorescence of urine Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of Deficiency Comments Niacin (B3) (nicotinic acid) Niacinamide (nicotinamide) Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia Lipid lowering Flushing (vasodilating effects) Hepatotoxicity N/V *Niacinamide does NOT have lipid- lowering or vasodilating effects Pyridoxine (B6) Oral lesions Peripheral neuropathy High doses inhibit prolactin Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Symptoms of Deficiency Comments Folic acid (B9)...
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vitaminosis of Vitamin A Headache fatigue N/V diplopia...

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