result of trauma. S/S include scrotal swelling and pain not relieved by elevation or support. This is a surgical emergency. Surgery must be done within 6 hours to save the testicle. e. Testicular Cancer
4 i. Neoplastic condition of the testicle. Etiology is unknown. Has a cure rate of 95%. Occurs most commonly in men age 15-35, higher incidence in Caucasian men and men with a history of undescended testicles. Tumors more common on the right side. ii. Risks factors include family history, HIV infection, Klinefelter syndrome, undescended testicle. iii. A painless testicular mass is the usual presenting sign. May have testicular heaviness or dull ache in the lower abdomen. Treatment may include surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Will have problems with infertility, pt may want to consider banking sperm. iv. Testicular self exam done monthly, for early detection v. Lymphoma presents as a testicular mass in men over 50. This is a sign of mets from the lymphoma. f. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) i. This is a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland. As the gland enlarges it will compress the urethra, where it passes thru the prostate, resulting in an outlet obstruction. The hyperplasia begins at age 40-45 and continues until death. By age 60, 60% of men have an enlarged prostate. ii. S/S include urgency, delay in starting urine flow, decreased in flow of urine, urine retention, enlarged prostate is felt on rectal exam. g. Prostate Cancer i. Neoplastic condition of the prostate gland. The most common cancer in American males. Etiology is unknown. ii. Risk factors include; age over 50, African American males, vasectomy, family history, a diet high in saturated fat, high testosterone levels (promotes tumor growth), smoking. Tumors are most commonly adenocarcinomas and occur in the periphery of the gland. iii. S/S: not present until the disease is advanced. Routine screening between age 40-50 with PSA and rectal examination of the prostate yearly is indicated. May have slow urinary stream, incomplete emptying of bladder, nocturia, dysuria, erectile difficulties, increased alkaline phosphatase, low back and pelvic pain. iv. Metastasis to the vertebrae and pelvic bones may happen.
- Fall '15
- testicular cancer, Metastasis