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Discuss how extranuclear genes such as mitochondrial

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Discuss how extranuclear genes such as mitochondrial DNA is inherited. What are linked genes? How can you use recombination frequency to determine whether genes are linked? What is nondisjunction? How does it occur? Discuss the difference between trisomy and polyploidy and its affects within an organism. Molecular Genetics Review Questions Understand the various experiments that showed that the genetic material of the cell is made of DNA and that DNA undergoes semiconservative replication. Discuss the directionality of DNA and why the two strands are antiparallel to each other. Explain the process of DNA replication in detail. Include a discussion of the enzymes involved and the leading and lagging strands. The DNA polymerase reads the template strand ___ to ___ and builds the new strand from 5’ to 3’ adding onto a free 3’ prime end of an existing strand. Compare and contrast DNA with RNA. Describe transcription and translation in detail including where they take place in the cell. Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription Discuss what causes mutations and how the same mutation could be beneficial, neutral, or harmful based upon the environment Discuss the different types of mutations What is the heterozygote advantage? Give an example Gene Expression Review Questions Describe the components of a virus Describe the lytic vs lysogenic cycle of a phage Discuss how retroviruses replicate Discuss how genetic variation is generated within viruses and why RNA viruses can evolve faster than DNA viruses. Discuss the sources of variation for bacateria Prokaryotic genes are sometimes arranged as operons. What is a operon? Explain how repressible and inducible operons work. Discuss all the ways eukaryotic gene expression is regulated.
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Biotech Review Questions What are plasmids? What are restriction enzymes? Discuss how recombinant plasmids can be made and inserted into bacteria. What problems would you run into if you would like to form recombinant bacteria that produces functional protein from a eukaryotic gene? How could you solve this issue? Describe how electrophoresis separates proteins or DNA fragments based upon size and charge. When would you use electrophoresis? Why may each person have a unique RFLP pattern (DNA fingerprint)? Describe the steps of PCR. When may you use PCR. Body Systems Review Questions Part 1 Give an example of how organs work together within an organ system. Give an example how multiple organ systems work together. Explain how the endocrine system helps the body maintain homeostasis. Explain how negative feedback helps an organism maintain homeostasis.
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