nationality; would invite more discriminatory laws against Chinese (paralleling Jim Crow) World War II o Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, HI (1941); response, President FDR issued exe order 9066, which led to the internment of over 130,000 Japanese/Italian/German Americans, some of whom were Jewish refugees. More than 2/3 were US citizens Korematsu v. U.S : upheld constitutionality of camps (Sup Ct ruling that upheld the authority of the US govt to require mass interment of people of Japanese ancestry in the US during WWII) Civil Liberties Act (1988): apologized to those interned and their descendants and offered reparations to them and their families Fastest growing minority grp; target diverse political venues; successful in California Gays and Lesbians
o LGBT Community : minority grp based on sexual orientation and gender identity that includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people; LGBTQ also o Highly discriminated grps Don't Ask, Don't Tell o 1993: Pres Bill Clinton signed into policy to try and ban discrimination in the military; goal was to not ask sexual orientation and barred them from revealing orientation under threat of discharge; however, many discharged on basis of sexual orientation Ended in 2010: federal dist court ruled the policy unconstitutional; issued an injunction directing the Dept of Defense to refrain from enforcing the policy; later that year, Congress passed and Pres Obama signed into law a formal appeal; in sept 2011 DADT officially ended Lawrence v. Texas (2003): sup. Court ruled that anti-sodomy laws violated the right to privacy Many corporations responded to the call for discrimination Same-sex marriage o Some states: ban, legalize, don’t have anything Was legal only in some states 2008: Prop 8 (CA)made same-sex marriage illegal; passes; appealed up to the US Sup Ct and ruled unconstitutional under due process and equal protection (14 amend) US v Windsor (June 2013 ): DOMA (defense of marriage act-federal law defining marriage as between one man and one woman) declared unconstitutional; Sup Ct refuses to hear lower court appeals Obergefell v Hodges (2015): Sup Ct ruling that held that same-sex couples have a fundamental right to marry under the Constitution 2016: Defense Sect Ashton Carter: end to longstanding ban on transgender people serving in the military August 25, 2017: President Trump signed directive to military reinstating ban on transgender serving in the military Controversial issue Americans with Disabilities Disabled veterans Returning from Korea and Vietnam Made the problems of being disable very clear; vets saw the success of other grps and began to advocate Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): o Defines a disabled person as someone with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more “life activities,” or who has a record of such impairment; extends the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to all citizens with physical or mental disabilities; guarantees access to public facilities, employment, and communication services
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- Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Compromise