· Work committees: some companies have works committees which are attended by representatives of both management and employees. The objective of these committees is to provide an opportunity for any ideas or problems which might be identified by either management or staff to be discussed. C.- Visual and electronic communication:Companies use many visual forms of communications internally, including television, posters for safety information or to inform employees about special offers. An increasing number of companies have a communications network. Micro-computers which staff has on their desks are linked together so that letters, reports, memos, and other messages can be sent electronically between them without the need for expensive typing or distribution of paper. D. Non-verbal communication: Non-verbal communication is also important in both formal and informal social situations. It includes the use of facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body contact, physical appearance etc… The communicator must ensure that any non-verbal signals support the oral message, rather than contradict it. Non-verbal communication can help managers to understand more about how their staffs are feeling. * Formal/informalFormal communication in an organisation is communication that takes place through the recognised channels (e.g. official meetings, memos, newsletters etc…). Informal communications are ones that take place that are not part of the ‘official’ recognised networks of organisation. This does not mean informal communications are necessarily negative or anti-organisational. Much of the good work in an organisation is carried out by members taking an initiative into their work and coming up with ideas that directly benefit the company. Informal communication can also serve as motivating their staff members because they are based on individual initiative (one on one conversations not planned). * Upward/downwardMuch of the communication in old-fashioned, traditional industries was carried out in a downward direction. Managers created the systems, the rules and the work programmes and communicated these down the line to junior employees. There are clear advantages of such an approach: 1. Senior managers are able to set targets and objectives, and then give the instructions to make sure they are carried out.