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Decisions are communicated by means of appropriate internal and externalhuman interfaces.It is important to remember that the CCM process requires that the related proce-dures are documented and that the appropriate configuration baselines are estab-lished. It is imperative that the baselines provide for the identification and control ofthe CIs.In general, the sequence of events for an iteration of the CCM process begins withthe determination that a change is required. The impetus for change, for example,can be an improvement, a new requirement, clarification of an existing requirement,or an externally mandated change. The project documentation establishes responsibili-ties and procedures for documenting the need for change, as well as procedures forsubmitting a change request. Note that the change control process has the tools andtechniques needed for the submission, recording, and retention of change requests.The CCM process is a type of workflow, where the first set of activities involves therecognition and documentation of a needed change and the entry of that informationinto the change management system.The next set of activities is concerned with the evaluation and approval of thechange request. These activities and their sequence can be quite complex if severalorganizations and/or a large body of documentation is involved. Often, the evaluationincludes review by a Configuration or Change Control Board (CCB) or equivalent.The next set of activities includes those related to processing the results of theevaluation and approval activities. These activities include providing notifications,preparing for implementation of approved changes, implementing the changes, andvalidating that the changes occurred. Note that in some projects, the verification ofchange is performed by an operating element and a separate organizational elementsubsequently verifies the implementation.
4.4ControlFundamental control of changes to configuration items (CIs) may be achieved througha Project Management Information System (PMIS), which supports a full audit trailand reporting of change requests. The requests contain information appropriate tomanaging changes to project deliverables. Depending on the application area and onthe degree of deliverable complexity, the PMIS may be augmented or supplementedby a CI database.Formal controls of CIs tend to focus on the unique deliverable being produced.Application areas such as architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, andcomputer systems frequently are governed by industry standards or formal practiceguidelines.Whether formal or informal, change management control ensures that each changerequest is tracked over its lifetime. Tracking would normally include the following asa minimum: unique tracking number, originator information, time stamp, and synopsisof request.