o fat is 2nd diserable when the body needs energy leads to pH changes ACIDOSIS

O fat is 2nd diserable when the body needs energy

This preview shows page 14 - 18 out of 41 pages.

o fat is 2nd diserable when the body needs energy--leads to pH changes- ACIDOSIS ALL CAN BE USED TO MAKE ENERGY, but best to use CARBOHYDRATES - protein better to repair to tissue o also, you’d have to chop off amino group (becomes urea- a waste product), using protein is expensive 14
Image of page 14
BIOLOGY 220 NOTES - don’t want to burn fat 24/7—intermediate end product is fatty acids— like a FREE RADICAL (pollutant)—burn fats in controlled way Want to use a simple sugar— GLUCOSE (galactose and fructose have to be converted to be used) - C6H12O6 - Glucose taken up and transported in body via the blood; enters cell with the help of insulin (made in the Beta cells in pancreas) GLYCOLYSIS: - FIRST STEP OF CARBOHYDRATE PATHWAY - Occurs in CYTOPLASM - Anaerobic respiration - oxygen is not required for the process, but is actually present - Take a glucose molecule and after 10 steps that each require enzymes, it splits into 2 new molecules—each called PYRUVIC ACID o Each pyruvic acid has 3 carbons with associate hydrogens and oxygens o Yields HEAT (heat is always yielded-maintains body temp) AND 2 ATP Move into OUTER MATRIX OF MITO o Inefficent but necessary process (so may steps and only yield 2 ATP after using some up)---every time an enzyme is use dit uses up energy CITRIC ACID OR KREBS CYCLE: -SECOND STEP IN CARBOHYDRATE PATHWAY---AEROBIC FROM THIS POINT ON 15
Image of page 15
BIOLOGY 220 NOTES - occurs in OUTER MATRIX MITO ***PROCESS— - one of 3 carbons chopped off pyruvate (has its own process) - becomes ACETYL (2 carbon compound) - Acetyl is carried into citric cycle by CoEnzyme A (present in outer matrix all the time)--once aceytl is picked up and shifted into position it becomes Acetyl CoA -Acetyl CoA has loose relationship in prescense of oxaloacteic acid (from “end” of previous cycle) (4 carbon compound), -acetyl and oxaloacetic acid combine to form citric acid (“beginning” of cycle) (6 carbon compound) -CoA goes away to pick up another aceytl , etc. Everytime something happens, the name is change—eventually end up with the oxalacetic acid -in time between the two seperate Citric Acid Cylcles, you have chopped off 2 Carbons and 16 hydrogens (each have 8) -PURPOSE OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE IS TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN ATOMS ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: 16
Image of page 16
BIOLOGY 220 NOTES - THIRD STEP OF CARBOHYDRATE PATHWAY -occurs in INNER MATRIX OF MITO -“lollipops” in diagram are molecules of the ETC- stud the membrane -in sequential order so that a H atom is picked up by the first molecule and handed down the line (example is “Bucket Brigade”-change as it is passed down the line) -atom becomes IONIZED as it passes down—creating a frenzy energy that is trapped anf bond into free ADP and inorganic phosphates in the INNER MATRIX to become the ATP -ulitmately make ATP energy, water (universal solvent), and Carbon Dioxide More Mitochondria you have, the more ATP you will have -get more energy when you start exercising or quit smoking *For every H from Kreb Cycle, Make 2 ATP— TOTAL OF 32 ATP in ETC *2 ATP from anerobic respiration (GLYCOLYSIS) * TOTAL OF 4 ATP
Image of page 17
Image of page 18

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture