Red pepper (190 mg/100 g) contains more vitamin C than broccoli, kale, eggplant and cabbage. Vitamin A: 10,000 IU (meaning there are many sorts of vitamin A). It is associated with vision. o Belong to a general family of compounds: retinoid (important in term of night vision). Excess vitamin A is toxic because it accumulates in the liver Vitamin A is produced from a precursor (beta-carotene), the precursor could be helpful for preventing cancer (antioxidant) o Supplements give the equivalent of 2 carrots. o 18,000 subjects at risk Lung cancer up 28% Death rate up 17% o 29,000 subjects at risk
Chemistry of food Lung cancer up 18% o Beta-carotene may have prevented the oxidation of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke o Beta-carotene may offer benefits only when consumed with other phytochemicals present in the diet. Skin aging is associated with chronological and environmental factors o The sun causes premature skin aging. o The sun attacks the dermis and breaks down the collagen prematurely. o Energy from the sun is associated with UV- B light (associated with sun burns) o Energy from the sun is also associated with UV-A light (tanning) o Sun breaks down the collagen from our skin aging o Retin-A has been shown to prevent wrinkles (normally used for acne, acts as an exfoliator and leaves smoother skin). It also helps with wrinkles around the eyes associated with aging. o Accutane is used as an oral treatment of acne. It can cause very severe side effects, such as deformed babies when taken by pregnant women. It can also cause personality alterations. o Supplements for pregnant women have more iron and folic acid and fewer vitamins A. o Vitamin A has been associated with hip fracture in postmenopausal women 72,000 women for 18 years 40% increased risk of hip fractures among those taking more than 2,000 mcg/day Vitamin D prevents rickets in children. Milk substitutes do not contain vitamin D, contrary to real milk. Some parents are also concerned with their child being exposed to the sun, which is necessary to produce vitamin D. Some adults lack vitamin D because they don’t spend enough time outdoors and don’t get necessary amounts from their alimentation. o The recommended amount of vitamin D for infants is 400 IU o 1 to 70 years old: 600 IU o > 70 years old: 800 IU Vitamin D might be useful in prevention of diseases such as cancer. o Meta-analysis in 2006 shows this o Study in 2007 shows that calcium + vitamin D reduces 60% incidence of cancer o Why? It interferes with mechanisms with which cancer cells multiply. o Canadian cancer society recommended in 2007 that everyone takes 1000 IU a day as preventive measure. If too much vitamin D, hypercalcemia. o It is the most sold vitamin. o Vitamin D pills cut multiple sclerosis risk. Vitamin E: love vitamin o Supplements of 100 IU, meaning there are different forms
Chemistry of food o Conditions associated with deficiency in vitamin E Acne Allergies Angina Pectoris Atherosclerosis Cancer Diabetes Frigidity Infertility Longevity Muscular dystrophy Peptic Ulcers Hemolytic Anemia:
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- Spring '11