[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

On chip detector electronics 225 227232 265272 283

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on-chip detector electronics, 225, 227–232, 265–272, 283 PIN diode, 153, 156, 166, 222, 229, 235, 242, 243, 437, 458, 484, 489, 564, 579, 580, 587, 593, 642, 648, 682, 701, 766 pn-CCD, 262, 264–269, 272–280, 282, 283 Si diode detector , 156, 219 silicon drift detector (SDD), 104, 200, 202, 203, 216, 222–235, 242, 243, 264, 269, 437–440, 458, 480 semiconductor industry, 299, 498, 509, 540, 546, 549 shallow dopant implant, 510 Si-wafer, 510, 531, 537–540, 547, 549, 612, 620, 626 Siegbahn notation (designation), 316 single layer, 134, 310, 318, 558, 559, 567, 586, 588, 718 single particle (-analysis), 447, 622, 627, 628, 632 size fraction, 552, 621, 622, 777, 778 small angle approximation, 112, 122, 175 soft X-ray (-regime, -range), 6, 8–14, 35, 99, 136, 216, 217, 225, 263, 287, 477, 546, 547, 553 solution ( see also analysis of liquids), 358, 362, 391, 412–418, 421, 426, 427, 456, 505, 508, 509, 513, 517, 519, 538, 608–612, 615, 620, 738, 740, 746–749 speciation, 462, 491, 501, 537, 551, 553, 618–620, 636, 637, 675, 685, 730, 748, 756, 758 spectra evaluation, 563, 564, 567, 570, 599, 775, 780 spectral reflectance, 157, 161 spectrum smoothing, 775 spurious peak, 501, 505, 507 standard addition (-method), 361, 362, 614, 735 standard sample, ( see also preparation of standards) 26, 348, 350, 384, 392, 393, 401, 577, 615, 716, 720, 723, 761 standard(s), (reference standards) 6, 17, 26, 310, 325, 326, 334, 340, 348–350, 352, 356, 363, 364, 369, 384, 413, 420, 428, 429, 442, 469, 470, 488, 505, 507, 508, 513, 516, 533, 535, 554, 565, 570, 596, 623, 628, 632, 671, 673, 674, 706, 716, 720, 723, 730, 738, 747–749, 761–768 internal standard(s), 358–362, 415, 416, 424, 426, 429, 447, 508, 513, 610, 614–616, 626, 695, 731, 734, 740–746, 749, 755, 757 reference material, 325, 350, 396, 402, 403, 424, 425, 428, 429, 447, 448, 488, 498, 504, 505, 507, 508, 517, 518, 537, 623, 673, 674, 677, 678, 701, 706, 714, 737, 742, 866 standardized method(s), 311, 400–403 standardless (method(s)), 384, 385–393, 403, 442, 573, 632, 677, 700 standing wave, 131, 136, 502, 509–511, 515, 612 substrate (sample carrier), 11, 123, 125, 127, 133, 137, 147, 166, 180–187,
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Index 861 202, 266, 370, 377, 378, 382, 415, 427, 484, 509, 510–516, 524, 538, 591, 594–598, 521, 608, 612, 618, 626–629, 638, 665, 737, 738, 741, 743, 744, 747–749 sum peak, 255, 480, 485, 634, 769 supermirror, 139 surface alteration, 689, 692, 693, 700 surface analysis, 26, 298, 499, 505, 508, 517, 723, 749 surface film (- layer), 419, 443, 475, 498, 509, 511, 693, 704, 709 - 711 multilayer structure of -, 87, 130, 137, 179, 182, 321, 370, 377, 382, 458, 678, 715 surface finishing, 419 synchrotron radiation, 5, 35, 66, 72, 86–90, 155, 166, 173, 186, 262, 272, 284, 384, 419, 420, 429, 433, 442, 462, 467, 470, 474, 475, 484, 489, 491, 499, 500, 520, 522, 523, 527–531, 533, 538, 540, 544, 619, 642, 672, 674, 678, 680, 729, 748, 749, 751, 752, 754, 755, 758, 763–765, 846 - beamline, 36, 68, 69, 74, 75, 78, 88, 89, 139, 159, 164, 165, 173, 184, 185, 463, 475, 479, 486, 492, 523–531, 541, 542, 546, 547, 549, 551, 619, 632, 634, 674, 699, 700, 701, 762 - bending magnet, 67, 68, 70, 72–76, 186, 475, 526, 527, 529–531, 538, 751, 755–557, 763, 765 ALS, 87 APS, 87, 492, 765–768, BESSY II, 88, 89, 139, 157, 158, 161, 162, 165, 173, 184–186, 282, 463, 467, 527, 546 ESRF, 67–80, 87, 463, 473, 477, 485, 489, 492, 527, 529, 540, 541, 546, 754, 760–767, 846 ELETTRA, 87 HASYLAB, 157, 463, 523–526, 630, 634, 699, 756, 763 LURE, 88, 477, 755, 757, 760 SPEAR2, 530–532 SSRL, 527, 528–533, 535, 538, 540, 544–546 SR-TXRF, (SRTXRF) 499, 503, 525–537, 540–550, 749, 750 synchrotron radiation X-ray fluores- cence (SRXRF), 420, 475, 632, 672, 674–677, 679, 688, 695, 696, 698, 699, 729, 740, 751–765, 768 synchrotron source, 86, 434, 442, 467, 473, 492, 530, 533, 539, 540, 619, 620, 626, 627, 658, 674, 679, 696 undulator (-radiation), 68–72, 75–80, 89, 475–477, 488, 489, 527–530, 541, 546, 547, 552, 749, 754, 763, 764, 766 wiggler, 68–72, 75–78, 475, 476, 527, 529–532, 765 tertiary excitation, 322, 324, 326, 395 thickness measurement, (layer-, film thickness) 11, 12, 124, 132, 156, 185, 287, 369, 375, 377, 378, 459, 460, 468, 470–472, 510, 516, 551, 554, 565, 567, 577, 586, 589, 590, 592, 596, 597, 599 thin film, 11, 86, 119, 136, 309, 311, 321, 325, 369, 382, 388, 414–416, 418, 419, 422, 505, 509, 515, 610, 620, 623, 677, 742, 753, 768, 848 thin layer, 11, 12, 39, 40, 130, 131, 136, 172, 309–311, 319, 321, 325, 369, 370, 377, 414, 415, 441, 452, 458, 459, 509, 511, 579, 587, 611, 621 total (external) reflection, 6, 9, 10, 13, 85–103, 110, 115, 120, 125, 134, 139, 187, 294, 415, 436, 477, 501, 509, 510, 512, 522, 523, 583, 584, 689 total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), 5, 415, 416, 420, 498–512, 516–555, 605, 607–620, 625, 626, 641, 643, 645, 686, 688, 692, 695, 696, 698, 719, 721–724, 729, 736–750 trace element(s), 153, 201, 349, 365, 424, 427, 440, 444, 461, 462, 470, 474, 477, 488, 490, 491, 501, 606, 618, 619, 623, 627, 628, 632, 634, 639, 644–648, 669–676, 688, 691,
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862 Index trace element(s) ( Continued ), 695–699, 706–708, 721, 723, 728, 729, 731, 732, 734, 735, 737–743, 745, 746, 749, 750, 752, 756, 758, 764 traceability, 396, 397, 555, 573
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