Republican congressmen from the West were certain that Britain was the primary offender. They pointed to its trade with Indians in the Ohio River Valley in violation of the Treaty of Paris and Jay’s Treaty. Bolstered by British guns and supplies, the Shawnee war chief Tecumseh [ta-KUM-sa]revived the Western Confederacy in 1809. His brother, the prophet Tenskwatawa [tens-QUA-ta-wa], provided the confederacy with a powerful nativist ideology. He urged Indian peoples to shun Americans, “the children of the Evil Spirit… who have taken away your lands”; renounce alcohol; and return to traditional ways. The Shawnee leaders found their greatest support among Kickapoo, Potawatomi, Winnebago, Ottawa, and Chippewa warriors,westerners who lacked knowledge of the strength and numbers of the advancing Americans. They flocked to Tenskwatawa’s holy village,Prophetstown, near the juncture of the Tippecanoeand Wabash rivers in the Indiana Territory.As Tecumseh mobilized the western Indian peoples for war, William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indiana Territory, decided on a preemptive strike. In November 1811, when Tecumseh went south to seek support from the Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, Harrison took advantage of his absence and attacked Prophetstown. The governor’s 1,000 troops and militiamen traded heavy casualties with the confederacy’s warriors at the Battle of Tippecanoe and then destroyed the holy village.