In a similar way for justices nominated after 1864

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In a similar way, for justices nominated after 1864, only one newspaper, the New York Times was searched for articles. This provided no crosscheck of information. Although the New York Times is a nationally recognized newspaper and usually a reliable source of information, it cannot be read without recognizing some possibility of bias. 27 The number of articles was reduced for the post-1930 group to conserve time. The effect on the results is not significant. Coding more than twenty articles for a justice would not have changed how the justice was categorized.
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53 By using contemporaneous newspaper articles as a measure of public knowledge of nominees, the assumption is made that newspapers, at least partly, function to inform the public. Newspapers, though, may have been more interested in selling newspapers, especially with the earliest nominees. Although nothing suggests that more current newspapers are less interested in selling newspapers, articles about more current newspapers tend to focus on the process of confirmation and less on the individual nominee. Additionally, post-1930 nominations are reported through numerous media sources including newspapers. Although only newspapers were examined, and other news sources (such as internet news or blogs) were excluded from study, impact on the results would be minimal. It is highly unlikely that a nominee would be depicted as well known by newspaper articles, but depicted differently by other types of news sources. Finally, all of these results are based on sometimes difficult judgment calls. In an effort to increase validity of the results, the biographies were added to the study, to supplement the newspaper articles.
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54 ~ Chapter 4 Results ~ Each of the 50 sampled justices was placed into one of two categories well known or unknown, reflecting the probable level of public recognition of the nominee at the time of nomination. As noted in the methodology chapter, justices were categorized based primarily on their treatment by newspaper articles. Seven justices could not be categorized based on articles, alone, 28 and their biographies were consulted for additional information. Table 1 displays how the justices were categorized, according to time period and public recognition. Of the justices nominated prior to 1930, 29 justices were classified as well known and one justice was classified as unknown. Stated another way, of all justices nominated prior to 1930, 96.7% were well known. Of the justices nominated after 1930, 3 were classified as well known and 17 were classified as unknown 15.0% and 85.0%, respectively. Political Office As alluded to in the introduction and literature review, justices from the earlier period tended to have more political experience than justices nominated later. To test this 28 John Blair, Jr.; Thomas Todd; Joseph Story; David J. Brewer; William H. Moody; Fred M. Vinson; Potter Stewart Table 1 Categorization of Sample n=50 WELL KNOWN UNKNOWN PRE-1930 n=30 96.7% n=29 3.3% n=1 POST-1930 n=20 15.0% n=3 85.0% n=17
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