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Protected expression only the expression of an idea

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Protected Expression only the expression of an idea can be copyrighted—not the idea itself to be protected, a work must be “fixed in a durable medium” Protection is automatic, registration is not required Must fall into: Literary works Musical works Pantomimes and choreographic works Pictoral, graphic& sculptural works (cartoons, maps, posters, stuffed animals)
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Motion pictures (including multimedia) Sound recordings Architectural works What is copyrightable is the expression of the idea. Thus, anyone can use the  underlying ideas in a copyrighted work Infringement: Whenever unauthorized copying occurs Damages: actual to criminal prosecution “Fair Use” exception: provides for exception to liability from reproduction of copyright  under the doctrine when material is used for criticism, comment, news, teaching,  research Ethics Approaches to Ethical Reasoning Religious Ethical Standards: the rightness/wrongness of an action is usually judged  according to its conformity to an absolute rule that commands a particular form of  behavior The motive of the actor is irrelevant Kantian Ethics: belief that general guiding principles for moral behavior can be derived  from human nature (categorical imperative) The rightness/wrongess is judged by estimating the consequences that would follow if  everyone in society performed the act The Principle of Rights: belief that every duty gives rise to a corresponding right, deeply  embedded in Western culture Ethicality of an action is judged by how the consequences of the action will affect the  rights of others Outcome Based Ethics: Utilitarianism Action is ethical based on whether it produces the greatest good for the greatest # of  people If it affects the majority adversely, it is morally wrong Applying the theory requires: Determination of individuals affected Cost-benefit analysis Choice among alternative actions
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Corporate Social Responsibility Those who manage corporations should be accountable to society for their actions Stakeholder Approach: corporations have a duty not only to shareholders, but other  groups (stakeholders) affected by corporate actions Corporate Citizenship: promote goals that society considers worthwhile and take  positive steps towards solving problems Offer and Acceptance: What Constitutes a contract Parties must show mutual assent to terms of contract Once and agreement is reached, if the other elements of a contract are present, a valid  contract is formed  Requirements of the Offeree Offeror’s serious intention-  contract is judged by what a reasonable person in the 
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