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outer shell it will most likely get rid of that electron, most of the time when we see sodium it’s an ion like in table salt NaCl-, the sodium ion has given up its electron in nature, chlorine has an almost full valence shell with 7 electrons so it attends to pick up one electron Anions – negatively charged ions, accepting electrons, (Cl like above) Cation and Anions bind together to make an ionic bond -Hydrogen bonds are very weak electrical attractions, partial positive charge on H and partial negative charge on another atom, they are attracted to each other to make a weak electrical bond Partially positive on hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bondPartially negative on oxygen or nitrogen atom of a polar covalent bondThe hydrogen bonding of water is what gives water all its properties. H bonding is one of the most important attractions in our bodies because it is how proteins begin to fold up in order to make the correct structure for its correct function. Most of the structure in proteins is due to the hydrogen bonding of amino acids -Properties of waterHigh heat capacity: (heat capacity = how much energy is required to change the temperature of the substance), a high heat capacity is a good property for water to have in relation to our bodies because of its thermo-regulation, it takes a lot of heat to raise the temperature of water, therefore, our bodies can absorb a lot of heat without our body temperature changing much, this is good because our body produces heat on its own from all of its metabolic processes especially when exercising, water in our bodies is the first line of defense in our body for over-heating, next comes sweating, vasodilation, etc Universal solvent: water can dissolve almost everything, anything that is charged like sodium chloride water can dissolve really well because charged particles interact with the partial positive and partial negative charges, so anything that is charged and anything that has polarity can be easily dissolved by water aka hydrophilic (means water loving) Molecules are defined by ability to interact with waterHydrophobic: molecules with non-polar bonds, lipids, oils, fats, tend to not have a strongpolarity so they do not act well with water, however, over time water can dissolve small amounts of these things as wellHydrophilic: molecules with polar bonds, ions Hydrogen bonding causes water molecules to be attracted to other water molecules 5
-Ionization of electrolytes:Electrolytes: soluble inorganic molecules whose ions can conduct electrical current in solutionElectrolytes are generally ions that dissolve in water like sodium and chloride, they can increase the electrical conductants of water, if you were to take pure water with no ions in it it would connect electro conduction a little bit but if you put sodium in it it will conduct better electricity Molecules that are electrolytes have ionic bonds – ionic bonds ionize (dissociate) in water and