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A.Proton Pump Inhibitors – Omeprazole (Prilosec)B.Histamine-2 (H2) Antagonists – Cimetidine (Tagamet HB)- Famotidine (Pepcid)- PediatricC.Antacids – Sodium bicarbonate (Bell-ans)- Calcium carbonate (Oystercal, Tums, and others)- Magnesium salts (Milk of Magnesia, and others)–Diarrhea I.Actions - Act at specific secretory surface receptors to prevent the final step of acid production and thereby decrease the level of acid in the stomach (Inhibits final stage of gastric secretion)II.Indications - Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers, GERD, erosive esophagitis, and benign active gastric disease- Long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditionsIII.Contraindications- AllergyIV.Adverse Effects - CNS effects - Dizziness, headache, asthenia, vertigo, insomnia, Apathy (Diarrhea, abdominal pain and tongue atrophy- 2 weeks)I.Action - Selectively block histamine-2 receptor sites- reduction in gastric acid secretion and reduction in overall pepsin productionII.Indications - duodenal ulcer or benign gastric ulcer - hypersecretory conditions such as Zollinger–Ellison syndrome - Prophylaxis of stress-induced ulcers and acute upper GI bleeding in critical patients. - Relief of symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach (OTC preparations)III.Adverse Effects - GI effects, CNS effects, Cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension- Galactorrhea, Gynecomastia – Man boob- Aluminum salts (Amphojel, and others)- ConstipationI.Action - Neutralize stomach acid by direct chemical reactionII.Indication - Symptomatic relief of upset stomach associated with hyperacidity, as well as hyperactivity
III.Adverse Effects - Relate to their effects on acid-base levels and electrolytes - Imbalance- Rebound acidity – Hyperacidity - Alkalosis- Hypercalcemia- Constipation – Aluminum salts- Diarrhea – Magnesium salts- HypophosphatemiaIV.Drug-drug interaction –
14)Diabetes Mellitus•Hyperglycemia: Increased blood sugar•Glycosuria: Sugar is spilled into the urine •Polyphagia: Increased hunger•Polydipsia: Increased thirst•Polyuria: Increased Urine Frequency•Lipolysis: Fat breakdown•Ketosis: Ketones cannot be removed effectively•Acidosis: Liver cannot remove all of the waste products Signs of Impending Dangerous Complications of HyperglycemiaI.Fruity breathas the ketones build up in the system and are excreted through the lungsII.Dehydration as fluid and important electrolytes are lost through the kidneysIII.Slow, deep respirations (Kussmaul’s respirations)as the body tries to rid itself of high acidlevelsIV.Loss of orientation and comaA.Insulin – tells glucose to go in the cell1.Actions - Hormone that promotes the storage of the body’s fuels- Simulates the synthesis of glycogen from glucose2.Pharmacokinetics