Gastrointestinal A Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole Prilosec IActions Act at

Gastrointestinal a proton pump inhibitors omeprazole

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13)Gastrointestinal
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A.Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole (Prilosec)B.Histamine-2 (H2) Antagonists Cimetidine (Tagamet HB)- Famotidine (Pepcid)- PediatricC.Antacids – Sodium bicarbonate (Bell-ans)- Calcium carbonate (Oystercal, Tums, and others)- Magnesium salts (Milk of Magnesia, and others)Diarrhea I. Actions - Act at specific secretory surface receptors to prevent the final step of acid production and thereby decrease the level of acid in the stomach (Inhibits final stage of gastric secretion) II. Indications - Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers , GERD , erosive esophagitis , and benign active gastric disease - Long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions III. Contraindications - Allergy IV. Adverse Effects - CNS effects - Dizziness, headache, asthenia, vertigo, insomnia, Apathy (Diarrhea, abdominal pain and tongue atrophy- 2 weeks) I. Action - Selectively block histamine-2 receptor sites - reduction in gastric acid secretion and reduction in overall pepsin production II. Indications - duodenal ulcer or benign gastric ulcer - hypersecretory conditions such as Zollinger–Ellison syndrome - Prophylaxis of stress-induced ulcers and acute upper GI bleeding in critical patients. - Relief of symptoms of heartburn , acid indigestion , and sour stomach (OTC preparations) III. Adverse Effects - GI effects, CNS effects, Cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension - Galactorrhea, Gynecomastia – Man boob - Aluminum salts ( Amphojel , and others) - Constipation I. Action - Neutralize stomach acid by direct chemical reaction II. Indication - Symptomatic relief of upset stomach associated with hyperacidity, as well as hyperactivity
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III. Adverse Effects - Relate to their effects on acid-base levels and electrolytes - Imbalance - Rebound acidity – Hyperacidity - Alkalosis - Hypercalcemia - Constipation – Aluminum salts - Diarrhea – Magnesium salts - Hypophosphatemia IV. Drug-drug interaction –
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14)Diabetes Mellitus Hyperglycemia : Increased blood sugar Glycosuria : Sugar is spilled into the urine Polyphagia : Increased hunger Polydipsia : Increased thirst Polyuria : Increased Urine Frequency Lipolysis : Fat breakdown Ketosis : Ketones cannot be removed effectively Acidosis : Liver cannot remove all of the waste products Signs of Impending Dangerous Complications of Hyperglycemia I. Fruity breath as the ketones build up in the system and are excreted through the lungs II. Dehydration as fluid and important electrolytes are lost through the kidneys III. Slow, deep respirations (Kussmaul’s respirations) as the body tries to rid itself of high acid levels IV. Loss of orientation and coma A. Insulin – tells glucose to go in the cell 1. Actions - Hormone that promotes the storage of the body’s fuels - Simulates the synthesis of glycogen from glucose 2. Pharmacokinetics
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  • Spring '19
  • Pharmacology, Therapeutic effect, Vomiting, Adverse Effect

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