➢ Extent of Change: If there is a minor change and the change involves only the routine operations, the resistance, if any, will be minimum. But the major changes like reshuffling of staff will lead to major visible resistance. Similarly, the process of change is slow; the resistance will be less as compared to rapid or sudden changes. ➢ Social Factors: Individuals have social needs like friendship, belongingness etc. for the fulfillment of which they develop social relations in the organization. They become members of certain informal groups. The change will bring a fear in the mind of people because there is generally dislike for new adjustments, breaking present social relationships, reduced social satisfaction, feeling of outside interference in the form of change agent etc. Group Level Factors Much of an organization’s work is performed by groups and several group characteristics can produce resistance to change: ➢ Group Inertia: Many groups develop strong informal norms that specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and govern the interactions between group members. Often change alters 7
tasks and role relationships in a group; when it does, it disrupts group norms and the informal expectations that group members have of one another. As a result, members of a group may resist change because a whole new set of norms may have to be developed to meet the needs of the new situation. ➢ Structural Inertia: Group cohesiveness, the attractiveness of a group to its members, also affects group performance. A highly cohesive group may resist attempts by management to change what it does or even who is a member of the group. Group members may unite to preserve the status quo and to protect their interests at the expense of other groups. Organizational level Factor ➢ Functional Sub-optimization : Differences in functional orientation, goals and resources dependencies can cause changes that are seen as beneficial to one functional unit to be perceived as threatening to other. Functional units usually think of themselves first when evaluating potential changes. They support those that enhance their own welfare, but resist the ones that reduce it or even seem inequitable. ➢ Organizational Culture: Organizational culture, that is, established values, norms and expectations, act to promote predictable ways of thinking and behaving. Organizational members will resist changes that force them to abandon established assumptions and approved ways of doing things. Threat to Power: Top management generally considers change is a threat to their power and influence in the organization due to which the change will be resisted by them. The introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams is the kind of change which is often seen as threatening by the middle and top level management. In addition they will never like to take the steps which will strengthen the position of trade unions.
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- Summer '19
- Leadership & Change Management