[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

A key activated control must be provided to ensure

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1. A key-activated control must be provided to ensure that X-rays will not be generated when the key is removed. 2. Each door of a cabinet X-ray system must have a minimum of two safety interlocks. Each access panel must have at least one safety interlock. 3. A control, other than the safety interlock, must be provided to resume X-ray generation following X-ray interruption by a safety interlock. 4. Two independent means must be provided to indicate when X-rays are being generated. One may be a milliamp meter labelled to indicate X-ray tube current; the other indicator must consist of an easily seen warning light labelled “X-RAY ON” 5. A clearly legible and visible label bearing the statement: “CAUTION: X-RAYS PRODUCED WHEN ENERGIZED” must be posted near the controls that energize the X-ray tube.
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Appendix 845 6. Radiation emitted from a cabinet X-ray system must not exceed an exposure rate of 5 µ Sv/h at any point 5 cm from the external surface at the maximum rated current and voltage. 7. A cabinet X-ray system must contain sufficient shielding and be located so exposure in unrestricted areas does not exceed 20 µ Sv in one hour and 1 mSv in one year. The US limit of 5 µ Sv/h at any point 5 cm from the external surface is larger than the EU limit of 1 µ Sv/h at any point 10 cm from the external surface, because the radiation source is not the surface but mostly a point several tens of cm inside the cabinet X-ray system. In general, the other requirements are similar between US and EU. References 1. ICRU, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Quan- tities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ICRU Report 51, ICRU Publications, Bethesda, MD (1993) 2. ICRU, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection Against External Radiation, ICRU Report 57, ICRU Publications, Bethesda, MD (1998) 3. ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, Annals of ICRP 21, No.1–3 (1991) 4. ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, General Principles for the Radiation Protection of Workers, ICRP Publication 75, Annals of ICRP 27, No.1 (1997) 5. European Commission, Council Directive 96/29/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, OJ L 159, 29.6.1996; Bull. 5–1996 (1996) 6. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC Regulations (10 CFR), Part 20 – Standards for protection against radiation (1994) 7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Title 21–Food and drugs, Chapter I Part 1020 – Performance standards for ionizing radiation emitting products, Sec.
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