For the body to filter the entire blood and then

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40. For the body to filter the entire blood and then retain theimportant elements, three processes must take place: filtration,reabsorption and secretion.41. It is the amount of pressure found inside the blood in thecapillaries, driving fluids out of the glomerular capillary.42. It is also called oncotic pressure. COP is dependent on theamount of proteins in the plasma. COP opposes blood hydrostaticpressure by driving fluids back into the capillary beds.
43. The COP needs to remain within a normal range between 25-32mmHg. *Memorize this normal range for the exam*44. It also opposes blood hydrostatic pressure and drives fluid backinto the glomerular capillaries.45. Net filtration pressure = (Outgoing forces – incoming forces)= HP- (COP + Capsular pressure)=60mmHg - (32mmHg +18mmHg))= 10 mmHg (net outward pressure)46. The size of the capillary fenestrations prevents passage of bloodcells and most blood proteins from leaving across the filter.47. It is an amount of blood filtered by the glomerulus over time.48. The GFR is increased by an increase in the arterial (andtherefore glomerular) blood pressure in the kidneys. The GFR and isdecreased by an increase in glomerular osmotic pressure most oftencaused by dehydration.49. If flow is too rapid, needed substances cannot be adequatelyreabsorbed. If flow is too slow, nearly all the filtrate is reabsorbed,including most of the wastes that should be excreted.50. Renal autoregulation, nervous system control, and hormonecontrol.51. Renal autoregulation52. When the nervous system takes over regulation, the afferentarterioles diameter is narrowed by sympathetic nerve fibers. Therelease of the hormone epinephrine by the adrenal medulla causesa decrease in renal blood flow and decreases the GFR.Question 4Not yet graded / 0 ptsPhysiology of the Urinary System53. What is the hormonal control mechanism for the renal flow?54. Angiotensinogen is a pre-enzyme produced by the ___ and freelycirculates in the blood.
55. When blood pressure drops, the enzyme ____ is released by thejuxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the nephron.56. In the ____, angiotensin I is converted to ____.57. Once circulating angiotensin II reaches the adrenal cortex, it causesthe release of the hormone ____.58. What is reabsorption?59. True or false: all reabsorption occurs in the renal tubules by diffusion.60. Where does the greatest amount of renal tubular reabsorptionoccur?61. About what percentage of Na+ is reabsorbed in the PCT? The loop ofHenle? The DCT?62. What is secretion?63. What is countercurrent flow?64. When an osmotic gradient is isosmotic, what does this mean?65. What is the concentration of the filtrate in the PCT vs. the bottom ofthe loop of Henle?66. True or False: The descending and ascending regions of the loop ofHenle have the same reabsorption characteristics.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Rebekah Stepp
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