call for the ‘continued development of trust in working outside of the disciplinary boundaries that many of us were taught and trained within’ (Handy & Davis, 2016, p. 230) In terms of more generally facilitating an understanding across these different professions, Corburn (2004) suggests that urban planning and public health can be reunited around a social justice agenda. Perceptions and worldviews: Theoretical approaches to health The need for intersectoral collaboration to address adverse health outcomes stems from an acknowledgement of the wider determinants of health. The social determinant approach grew out of the work of Lalonde and McKeown in the mid-1970s that rekindled interest in public health, leading to the development of health promotion as a means by which concerns about a broad range of health determinants could be addressed (Lalonde, 1974; McKeown, 1976). Lalonde argued that the dominance of the medical perspective in the years prior had obscured the fact that the origins of much ill health and disease derived from activities beyond the health sector and so required serious attention to be directed to the wider determinants of health (McKeown, 1976). This gave way to the wider determinants of health approach made evident through the work of (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2007), making the case for intersectoral collaboration between the health profession and other sectors for example housing, planning and education. More recently, papers have pushed for the adoption of an ecological theory of health that considers the multiple layers of health determinants including the individual, social, environmental, economic and political factors (Corburn, 2004; Kent & Thompson, 2012). In many European societies, the predominance of the medical model has emphasised the treatment of the sick through medical services (Davis & Annett, 2011) to the detriment of addressing the wider determinants (Marks et al., 2015; Marmot et al., 2008; Milne, 2012; World Health Organization, 2013).
28 Perceptions and worldviews: Systems Perspective More recently, following the move away from a narrow medical model of public health, increasingly prevalent in the twenty first century is a systems approach to public health (Handy & Davis, 2016). A systems approach appreciates health as a complex adaptive system that adjusts ‘in dynamic and unpredictable ways to changes within the system itself or in the context in which it operates’ (Swanson et al., 2012, p. 58). Practically this means creating ‘learning organizations’ that work continuously transdisciplinary at all levels towards common goals (Chunharas, 2006). Such an approach can assist intersectoral collaboration as well as effectively portray how transport and urban planning relate to health without reducing the complexity of this relationship other (Widener & Hatzopoulou, 2016).
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