5.1980: a new realignment?a.Reagan won in 1980 because he was not Jimmy Carterb.Could not have been a traditional realignment because Congress was left in the hands of the Democrats6.Major shift that has occurred: shift in presidential voting patterns in the Southa.1972-2004: South has been more Republican than nation as a wholeb.If continues, will constitute a major regional realignmentF. Party decline1.Evidence that parties are declining, not realigning2.Proportion of people identifying with a party declined between 1960 and 19803.Proportion of those voting a split ticket increasedc.was almost unheard of in the 19thcentury, because voters were given ballots by the partiesd.became more common with the adoption of theoffice=bloc ballot (listing candidates by office instead of party)III. The national party structure today (THEME A: PARTY STRUCTURE TODAY)
support the party’s congressional candidates4.National chair manages daily workB.Party structure diverged in the late 1960s and early 1970s1.RNC moved to bureaucratic structurea.Became a well-financed party devoted to electing its candidates, especially to Congressb.Beginning in 1980s, RNC used computerized mailing lists to raise moneyc.Money was used to provide services to candidatesd.RNC effectively created a national firm of political consultants2.Democrats moved to factionalized structure and redistributed powera.Democrats lost 5 out of 6 presidential electionsbetween 1968 and 1988b.By the 1990s, DNC had learned from the RNC:adopted the same techniques, with some success3.DNC and RNC send money to state parties, to sidestep federal spending limits (soft money)C.National conventions1.National committee sets time and place; issues a “call” setting the number of delegates for each state and the rules for their selection2.Formulas are used to allocate delegatesa.Democrats’ formula shifts delegates away fromthe South, to the North and Westb.Republicans’ formula shifts delegates away from the East, to the South and Southwestc.Result: Democrats move left, Republicans right3.Democratic formula rewards large states wile the Republican formula rewards loyal states4.Democrats set new rulesa.In 1970s, rules were changed to weaken local party leaders and increase the proportions of women, youth, Blacks, and Native Americans attending the conventionb.Hunt Commission in 1981 increased the influence of elected officials and made the convention more deliberative5.Consequence of reforms: parties represent different sets of upper-middle-class votersa.Republicans represent more traditional middle class – more conservativeb.Democrats represent more leftist wing of the liberal middle class
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International Democrat Union, United States presidential nominating convention