Ocean basins open and close Continental landmasses collide and rift apart

Ocean basins open and close continental landmasses

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Plate tectonics drives continental movement. Ocean basins open and close. Continental landmasses collide and rift apart. Supercontinents (like Pangaea) have formed several times. SL has risen and fallen many times over Earth’s history. Sea levels +/- 300 meters during the Phanerozoic (beginning of Cambrian) Transgression (SL rise): shorelines move landward Regression (SL fall): shorelines move seaward Sedimentary rocks preserve evidence of sea-level change. Sea-level cycles are bounded by unconformities. End of Mesozoic, sea level was 220m higher than it is now Last glaciation, sea levels were 100m lower Sea level rises and falls largely because of sequestering of a lot of the ice formed on the continents and also depends on rate of plate tectonic activity Fast activity means spreading quickly and does not sink very fast The rock cycle there are three types of rock: Igneous cooled from a melt. Sedimentary made of weathered and eroded materials Metamorphic rocks altered by heat and pressure One rock type may transform into any other type. The atoms in rocks are constantly being rearranged. Biogeochemical Cycles Chemical fluxes between living and nonliving. Involve storage and transfer between reservoirs
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Nonliving reservoirs: o Atmosphere o Lithosphere o Hydrosphere Living reservoirs: o All living organisms: Microbes Plants Animals Nonliving and living parts of earth system interact: Life particularly oceanic life that forms skeletons and shells takes CO2 out of the water and deposits it into the rock 30,000 times more CO2 contained in carbonate rocks than on Earth from living creatures The hydrologic cycle: Water moves between reservoirs on or near Earth’s surface. o Biological: All living organisms o Physical: Oceans Atmosphere Surface water Ground water Glaciers Soil moisture The Carbon Cycle A biogeochemical cycle that regulates climate Volcanic CO 2 adds carbon to the atmosphere. Atmospheric CO 2 is removed in several ways: o It dissolves in water as carbonic acid and bicarbonate. o Photosynthesis removes CO 2 . o Weathering CO2 falls onto a rock and is wet, it's an acid and it eats into the rock and produces some carbonates Carbon may be stored for long periods of time. Limestones Fossil fuels (coal and oil) Organic shales Methane hydrates o Combination of CH4 and ice Carbon is returned to the atmosphere. Biotic respiration creates CO 2 from organic matter. Rapid oxidation (burning) of organic matter creates CO 2 . Metamorphism of carbonate rocks liberates CO 2 . Degassing removes dissolved CO 2 from water. Global Climate Change Earth’s climate has changed many times.
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Long-term climate change o Millions to tens of millions of years in scale Short-term climate change o Tens to hundreds of thousands of years in scale We have almost doubled amount of CO2 in atmosphere Important greenhouse gases: H2O
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