Cognitive Deficits●General Deficits○Executive function deficits:higher-order planning and regulation (difficulty problem solving, planning/organizing,shifting attention; also in ADHD)○Lack of central coherence:make sense of broader context 3
Psyc324 lecture 7vs. individual pieces (difficulty understand the bigger picture, developing generalised knowledge, mental scripts)○Categorization:formation of concepts■Rule-based: necessary and sufficient (e.g. square)■Prototype:single exemplar (e.g. robin)■Better at rule based vs prototype■Social information is unpredictable, not rule-based -may help to explain deficits in processing social information■Co-occuring problems●Intellectual disability●Epilepsy●ADHD●Learning disabilities●Anxiety/fear/mood problems●Self-injurious behaviors●Differential Diagnosis○Intellectual disability■Overlap: self-stimulation, self-injurious behavior■ASD: deficits in joint attention, ToM○Developmental Language Disorders■Overlap: delayed babbling, language acquisition■ASD: deviant language development (echolalia, pronoun reversal, nonverbal deficits)○Childhood Schizophrenia■Later age of onset■Less impaired intellectual ability■Hallucinations and delusions■Periods of relapse/remission●Epidemiology○Prevalence■About 1-2%■Increasing prevalence■Likely due to heightened awareness, broadening of definition○Sex differences■4-5x more common in boys■Mostly in high functioning group (females have severe intellectual deficits)■Extreme male brain theory (Baron-Cohen): synthesizers (understanding inanimate world) vs empathizers (understand social world)●Attention to detail, interest in math and science vs empathy and 4
Psyc324 lecture 7communication○Age of Onset■Most noticeable by age 2 (Osterling and Dawson)■Decline in eye contact over first 6 months (lack of social reward motivation)■Failure to gain/loss of social skills 6-12 months■New advances in early screening: possible early indicators (not orienting to name, rare eye contact when interacting, limited gestures and babbling in social context)●Etiology○Problems in Early Development■Health problems during pregnancy (e.g. viral infection, bleeding), birth;
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- Spring '13
- Self-injurious behavior