These enzymes were called the ―kinases,‖ and they were soon found to behave as molecular master switches within a cell.Bishop and Varmus found a nearly identical version of viral src lodged firmly in the normal cell’s genome. Viral src—the cancer-causing gene—was cellular src on overdrive. precursor of a cancer-causing gene— the ―proto-oncogene,‖ as Bishop and Varmus called it—was a normal cellular gene.
Denis Parsons Burkitt1911 - 1993During World War II, Burkitt served with the Royal Army Medical Corps in England and later in Kenya and Somaliland. After the war Burkitt decided his future lay in medical service in the developing world and he moved to Uganda. He eventually settled in Kampala and remained there until 1964.Burkitt 'made two major contributions to medical science related to his experience in Africa. The first was the description, distribution, and ultimately, the etiology of a pediatric cancer that bears his name Burkitt's lymphomaHis second major contribution came when, on his return to Britain, Burkitt compared the pattern of diseases in African hospitals with Western diseases. He concluded that many Western diseases which were rare in Africa were the result of diet and lifestyle. He wrote a book Don't Forget Fibre in your Diet, which was an international best-seller.
Henry Kaplan1918-1984Stanford Medical Linear Accelerator in 1955 and also in the 1975 lab to research cancer viruses
Henry KaplanHe is credited with finding that leukemias and cancers of the lymph system in mice were caused by a latent virus activated when radiation or chemicals suppressed the function of the animal's normal immune system in 1959
Cancer Theories•By the 1960,s cancer was considered infectious, the NCI has a large Special Virus Cancer Program and Rous got the 1966 Nobel Prize•1970’s efforts to prove that retro viruses caused most cancers failed (a few years later HIV)•cancer-causing gene— the ―proto-oncogene,‖ as Bishop and Varmus called it—was a normal cellular gene. Mutations induced by chemicals or X-rays caused cancer not by ―inserting‖ foreign genes into cells, but by activating such endogenous proto-oncogenes.
Genetics and CancerCancer, in short, was not merely genetic in its origin; it was genetic in its entirety. Abnormal genes governed all aspects of cancer’s behavior. Cascades of aberrant signals, originating in mutant genes, fanned out within the cancer cell, promoting survival, accelerating growth, enabling mobility, recruiting blood vessels, enhancing nourishment, drawing oxygen— sustaining cancer’s life. These gene cascades, notably, were perversions of signaling pathways used by the body under normal circumstances.Mukherjee, Siddhartha (2010-11-16). The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer (pp. 387-388). Scribner. Kindle Edition.
OncovirusAnoncovirusis a virus that can cause cancer. This term originated from studies of acutely transforming retroviruses in the 1950–60s. It now refers to any virus with a DNA or RNA genome causing cancer and is synonymous with "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of long-standing coevolution
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- Fall '19