we emphasize that the findings presented in this study are valuable in

We emphasize that the findings presented in this

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we emphasize that the findings presented in this study arevaluable in developing organicopto electronic devices aswell as clarifying the underlying mechanisms of carriertransport in organic films.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe thank the New Energy and Industrial TechnologyDevelopment OrganizationNEDOof Japan for financialsupport of this work.1S. R. Forrest,NatureLondon428, 9112004 .2N. Koch,ChemPhysChem8, 14382007 .3Y.Shirota,Y.Kuwabara,H.Inada,T.Wakimoto,H.Nakada,Y.Yonemoto, S. Kawami, and K. Imai,Appl. Phys. Lett.65, 8071994 .4S. A. Van Slyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang,Appl. Phys. Lett.69, 21601996 .5S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga,J. Phys. D29, 27501996 .6X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K.Leo,Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 4102001 .7K. J. Reynolds, J. A. Barker, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and G. L.Frey,J. Appl. Phys.92, 75562002 .8G. L. Frey, K. J. Reynolds, and R. H. Friend,Adv. Mater.Weinheim,FIG. 7. Work functions of glass/ITO150 nm/MoO3Xnmsamples as afunction of MoO3thicknessXnm . The thicknessXnmof MoO3layeron ITO was varied from 0 to 10 nm.FIG.8.Atomicforcemicroscopeimagesofglass/ITO150 nm/MoO3Xnmsamples:aX=0 nm,bX=0.75 nm,cX=1 nm, anddX=5 nm.054501-5Matsushima, Jin, and MurataJ. Appl. Phys.104, 054501 2008
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