-Showed collapse of Poland, Belgium, Holland and France to demonstrate German might -Used various ways to scare nation’s people of a possible Allied victory -Broadcast false German victories • When allies bombed Germany, it strengthened their resistance by confirming the Nazi propaganda claim of ruthlessness of Germany’s opponents • Hitler received very little resistence • However, 1944—small group of army officers attempted to assassinate Hitler; effort failed and very few people supported act • Physical destruction, invastion, and occupation of Hitler and Nazi brought most change to Germany • After defeat, only a new kind of state with new political structure could amount Great Britain: Organization for Victory • May 22, 1940—British Parliament gave the gov’t emergency powers --To institute compulsory military services
--To begin food rationing --To have various controls over economy • All British political powers joined national gov’t under Churchill --Churchill moved quickly to mobilize nation • Most urgent need was for airplanes—For Battle of Britain to fight Germany --Lord Beaverbrook—important newspaper publisher --inspired massive campaign for scrap metal --pots, pans, wrought-iron fences donated for effort --Citizens inspired and enthusiastic • End of 1941—British production surpassed Germany’s --Factory hours extended, women brought into workplace --Unemployment disappeared, working class enjoys $ --To avoid inflation, savings encouraged and taxes rose • “The Blitz”—winter and spring 1940-1941—most immediate and dramatic experience of war for British themselves --German air raids left many British homeless and dead --30,000 people killed --However, spirit of British morale never broken • British made many sacrifices --transportation facilities strained from carrying goods, domestic coal for factories and heating civilian homes --Strict rationing—food and clothing scarce --Every scrap of land was farmed, increasing productive land by 4 million acres --Gasoline scarce --Private vehicles almost vanished • British propaganda --BBC British Broadcasting Company --Sent programs to every country in Europe to encourage resistance against Nazis --In Britain, gov’t used radio to unify nation --Soldiers and families alike heard speeches such as “It’s that Man Again” Churchill’s 2 nd speech • Standard of living increases during war --Connected with active involvement of gov’t in economy and lives of citizens • Wartime experience may have contributed to Labour Party’s victory in 1945 --Many feared return of Conservative Party rule
--economic problems and employment would follow The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War” • War with Germany came as surprise to Stalin—violated pact of 1939 with German -Russia on defensive both militarily and politically -Showed failure of Stalin’s policy and ineptness for war prep • Stalin stated the pact gave time for Soviet Union to prepare for war • Stalin afraid that oppressed Russians may welcome Germans b/c of treatment of
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