Independent Executive Agencies Executive agencies operate as services and regulatory agencies and are separate because they exist independently from other executive departments. In executive agencies, the president can terminate people’s positions only if there is proof of removal according to statutory provisions. An Executive agency is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions. An example of these agencies is the Federal Communication Commission that overseas media in the United States, or the CIA, NASA, and EPA. These agencies are generally justified by acts of Congress designed to manage outlined government functions, such as the maintenance of infrastructure and regulation of commerce. Merit System The Merit system used by federal government for hiring and promoting government employees to civil service positions based on competence. The merit system uses educational and occupational experiences, testing, and job performance as measures for selecting, hiring, and promoting civil servants. The merit system was established to improve parts of the governmental work force previously staffed by the political patronage or spoils system, which allowed the political party in power the opportunity to reward party regulars with government positions. The merit system has been adopted by state and local governments as well. In 1883, the Pendleton Act established procedures to assure that selections for certain
6 Federal jobs would be open, competitive, and free of political coercion. The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 that created the nine Merit System Principles and the eleven Prohibited Personnel Practices that we recognize today. Public Administration Public administration upholds a civil society and provides for the needs of the public. There are six disciplines to public administration which are community development, sustainability, environmental management, leadership, crisis management and public safety. These functions provide for the well-being of citizens. Public administrators perform a wide range of jobs, including managing city budgets, developing policy and legislation, implementing policies, and analyzing data to determine public needs. Public administration is the responsibility of governmental agencies. The daily functions of government are performed by the public administrators who organize, implement and oversee the enforcing agencies that administer the laws and regulations that keep public life in motion. Spoils System The spoils system refers to the process where elected officials reward political supporters with government jobs. The goes back to President Andrew Jackson. The term was meant to be judgmental. It was related to a speech by Senator William L. Marcy who said, “To the victors belong the spoils.” (Center for Effective Government, 2015) Meaning with each new elected official, brings in a new group of replacements in government positions. The way the system works would be a citizen is elected Mayor of a city.
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