solidary benefits- Social advantages (such as networking, friendship, and community) that come from working with others toward a common goal.purposive benefits- The gratification that comes from working toward a worthy cause or desired policy goal.material benefits- Rewards carrying monetary value that come from membership or participation in an interest group.right-to-work laws- State laws that prohibit employers from requiring union membership as a condition of employment.interest group entrepreneur- An individual who attempts to organize people with shared interests to take collective action.interest group entrepreneur- An individual who attempts to organize people with shared interests to take collective action.public policy- Action taken by government to address societal problems or needs.Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990- A federal law that defines disability as “a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities,” prohibits discrimination based on disability, and mandates public accommodation for those with disabilities.Higher Education Act of 1965- A law providing federal financial aid through needs-based scholarships and low-interest student loans for college students.ARPANET- The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network responsible for introducing packet switching networks, the original building blocks of the global internet.legitimating- The act of giving legal force to something.fragmentation- The phenomenon of separate government actors seeking to solve the same problem in different and potentially conflicting ways.Patriot Act- Federal legislation that significantly expanded the intelligence-gathering and law-enforcement powers of the U.S. government. Passed in response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the law is officially titled the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001.iron triangle- A term describing the coordination among congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups.
military-industrial complex- Term coined by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to describe the iron-triangle relationship among lawmakers with power over defense policy, bureaucratic agencies involved innational defense, and private corporations supporting the defense industry.stakeholders- Those who have a vested interest in the policy at hand.civil rights- The protection of citizens from discrimination by the government or private entities, derived from the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.suffragists- Activists of the 19th and early 20th centuries who advocated the right to vote for women. Suffragists achieved their primary goal with the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920.contraception- Methods of preventing pregnancy (a.k.a. birth control).