Co2 bonds with rubisco which is the most abundant

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CO2 bonds with RuBisCO which is the most abundant enzyme on the planet - RuBisCO also has affinity for O2 though – when RuBisCO bonds with O2 instead of CO2, the Calvin Cycle undergoes the process of photorespiration - Conditions which close stomata and reduce CO2 concentrations in leaves (such as high temperatures or low water) can promote photorespiration and inhibit photosynthesis (in C3 plants) - C4 and CAM plants have evolved pathways to avoid photorespiration – bond carbon into other organic molecules BEFORE involving RuBisCO - C4 plants perform better than C3 at high temperatures but not as well at low temperatures – CM is best suited for extremely arid environments Terms: short-wave radiation, long-wave radiation, chloroplast, chlorophyll, antenna pigment, stomata, transpiration, photosynthesis, PAR, RuBisCO, Respiration, Photorespiration, compensation point, photoinhibition, C3 plant, C4 Plant, CAM Plant Concepts to explain - Why most plant leaves appear green and why do some plant leaves exhibit other colours such as red - How a plant gets water up to its leaves - What happens in the light reactions of photosynthesis - What happens in the dark reactions
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- What are some limitations of light reactions - Limitation of the dark reaction - The difference of C3, C4 and CAM plants - How do these differences relate to evolutionary history of plants LECTURE 8 – Global Physical Earth Patterns - Physical patterns and processes occurring at earth’s surface - Climate is not random – controlled by: o Latitude o Elevation o Distribution of continents and oceans Global Climate: difference between weather, climate and atmosphere The Atmosphere - Layer of gas – extends over 100 km above surface of the earth - Divided into different layers based on temperature, pressure and chemical composition - All life exists at lowest level (9-17 km) – troposphere o >90% of atmosphere mass - Air pressure and temperature decrease with height in the troposphere - Mountain range tops have thinner air where temperatures are much cooler - 275 m rise in elevation = air pressure increase by ~3.3% - 1000m rise in elevation = 6.5 C drop in temperature Weather – how is the atmosphere behaving – at a given place at a given time – change daily or hourly Primary difference between weather and climate = time Climate – how does the atmosphere behave on average – at a given place – fro a long period of time (usually at least 30 years) Global Physical Earth Concepts - how are global temperatures, winds, precipitation and ocean currents influenced Global Temperature Patterns - Isotherm: a line that connects points of the same temperature - Note how much ‘colder’ winter is in the N. Hemisphere - Continental vs marine climate - Islands at the same latitude generally warmer (annual climate) Albedo - The percentage of light reflected from a surface Fresh snow – 75-95% Ice – 30-40% Grassy Field 10-30% Water 5-80% (3-5% at zenith) Global Precipitation Patterns
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Types of precipitation: orographic, frontal (warm air go over, cold air go under), convective (two circles) Coriolis Effect -
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