Insulin secretory defect the resistance results from

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insulin secretory defect; the resistance results from a relative, not an absolute, insulin deficiency; constitutes the majority of diabetes cases; predisposition-genetics, age ( risk increases with age), obesity, sedentary lifestyle Gestational DM Any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy; causes- metabolic and hormonal changes; most return to normal postpartum; associated w/ increased perinatal complications and an increased risk for development of diabetes in later years Ketones Produced in liver by metabolism of lipids in presence of low carbohydrate availability; (physiological conditions where elevated ketone levels are present) in cases of carbo. deprivation of decreased carbo. use such as diabetes mellitus (particularly type I), starvation/fasting, high-fat diets, prolonged vomiting, and glycogen storage disease, blood levels increase to meet energy needs; (Let’s say a Type I has no insulin to utlize in blood so body resorts to other substances for energy-end product=ketones which can shift body’s overall pH and cause disease American Diabetes Association Criteria for Diagnosing DM If > than 45 –fasting glucose every 3 years –younger screening if obese; famility history; high risk pop. (AA, NA, Asian A); history of gestational; baby > 9 Ibs; hypertensia (>14o/90); increased triglycerides (>250 mg/dl); Hx of impaired glucose tolerance/ fasting glucose levels List the American Diabetes Association fasting glucose ranges as well as ranges for 2 hour post prandial glucose Fasting Blood Glucose Levels: 100-125 mg/dl –pre-diabetic >125 mg/dl -diabetes If have those levels then ask patient to come in fasting and give them glucola 2 hrs. past ingestion of glucola (75g):
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