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II. Hello effect It is a problem, which arises in performance evaluation when a supervisor’s ratings of a subordinate on one trait bias the ratings of the person on other traits. Hello error can be either negative or positive, meaning that the initial impression can cause the ratings to be either too low or too high. Being aware of this problem is a major step towards avoiding it. Supervisory training can also alleviate the problem. Besides allowing the rater to evaluate all subordinates on one dimension before proceeding to another dimension can reduce this type of error. III. Central Tendency A Central tendency error occurs when a rater avoids using high or low ratings and assigns average ratings. For example, if the rating scale ranges from 1 to 7, they tend to avoid the highs (6 and 7) and lows (1 and 2) and rate most of their people between 3 and 5. This type of “average” rating is almost useless-it fails to discriminate between subordinates. Thus, it offers little information for making HRM decisions-regarding compensation, promotion, training, or what should be feedback to rates. Raters must be made aware of the importance of discriminating across rates and the use of evaluations. This sometimes stimulates raters to use less central (average) ratings. Rankings employees instead of using graphic rating scale can reduce this problem, since ranking means you cannot rate them all average. IV. Leniency or harshness error This problem occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low. Some raters see everything as good- these are lenient raters. Others-raters see everything as bad these are harsh raters. This strictness or leniency problem is especially severe with graphic rating scales, when firms do not tell their supervisors to avoid giving all their employees high or low
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