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Inner layer holds all typical eukaroyotic organelles

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Inner layer holds all typical eukaroyotic organelles Outer zone has numerous gas filled vacuoles that keep the cell afloat. Most abundant in nutrient-rich tropical waters where microscopic algae are abundant Lived and died in great numbers and remains are on sea floor 21.5 The Ciliates Alveolates= members of a lineage characterized by a layer of sacs of unknown function under the plasma membrane o Three groups of protists are part of this—ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans o Ciliates= ciliated protozoans Highly diverse heterotrophs with 8000 species Occur anywhere where water is Most are predators 1/3 live in bodies of animals One is a human pathogen: Balantidium coli Paramecium— freshwater ciliate has organelles called trichocysts beneath the pellicle that give it its shape
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produce asexually and some reproduce sexually has a macronucleus that controls daily function, and one or more small micronuclei 21.6 Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellate= means whirling flagellate o Typically have two flagella: one extends out from base of cell and other wraps around cell’s middle like a belt o Alveolates and most deposit cellulose in the alveoli beneath their plasma membrane o About half of the dinoflagellates are heterotrophs Most are predators some are parasites o Algal bloom= free living photosynthetic dinoflagellates or other protists sometimes undergo great increases in population size Can sicken humans and kill aquatic organisms o Bioluminescence= some dinoflagellates exhibit this: they convert ATP energy to light energy 21.7 Cell-Dwelling Apicomplexans Apicomplexans= parasitic alveolates that spend part of their life cycle living inside cells of their hosts. o Complex of microtubules at their apical end that they use to enter a host cell o Sometimes called sporozoans o Malaria is most studied apicomplexan disease o Life cycle Sporozoite travels to liver cells and reproduces asexually Some of resulting cells enter RBC and liver cells where they divide asexually Others develop into immature gametes or gametocytes Mosquito sucking blood from infected person takes up gametocytes that later mature as gametes in its gut
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2 gametes fuse== resulting zygote develops into new sporozoite Sporozoites migrate to insects salivary glands and await transfer to new vertebrate host o Toxoplasmosis: other disease caused by toxoplasma gondii 21.8 The Stramenopiles Stramenopiles= protest lineage that includes the photosynthetic diatoms and brown algae, as well as the heterotrophic water molds. Some members of the group have a hairy flagellum.
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